THE TRUTH ABOUT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

The Truth About Essential Fatty Acids

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD essential fatty acidsMany in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.

BACKGROUND

Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.

Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.


essential fatty acids

Figure 1 – Basic diagram of fatty acids structure

The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.

Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

FATTY ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS

The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

essential fatty acids

Figure 2 – fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body

The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).

In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.

EICOSANOIDS/PROSTAGLANDINS

Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their “enhanced” derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.

Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.

Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.

Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in “fight or flight” (stress) situations, – the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.

Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.

It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.

Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.

Essential Fats

Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS – PATHWAYS

The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

essential fatty acids

Figure 3 – Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body

The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.

RESEARCH ON ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.

Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. “Enhanced forms” are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.

In Chapkin’s research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE

Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).

Essential Fats Plus E

ESSENTIAL FATS PLUS E IS A HIGHLY ADVANCED ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS SUPPLEMENT
OFFERING SPECIAL BENEFITS:

  1. UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
  2. BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
  3. FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
  4. ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!

COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.

NUTRIENT AMOUNT % Daily Value†
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
360 mg *
DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
240 mg *
GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid 18:3 omega 6)
(from 450 mg of cold pressed borage seed oil)
90 mg *
Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil) 24 IU 81%
Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
(from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
28.8 mg *

* No established Daily Value
† Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet

IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
• Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
• Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
• Mediate Immune Response
• Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
• Dilate or constrict blood vessels
• Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
• Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
• Regulate the rate at which cells divide
• Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
• Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
• Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
• Regulate nerve transmission

GENETIC TESTING AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.

We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.

CONCLUSION

The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.

REFERENCES

The following includes abstracts of Chapkin’s published research on essential fatty acids.

REFERENCE 1

Chapkin RS Somers SD Erickson KL

Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid.

In: Lipids (1988 Aug) 23(8):766-70

Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.

Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.

 

REFERENCE 2

Chapkin RS Carmichael SL

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses.

In: Lipids (1990 Dec) 25(12):827-34

This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.

 

REFERENCE 3

Fan YY Chapkin RS

Mouse peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E1 synthesis is altered by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

In: J Nutr (1992 Aug) 122(8):1600-6

The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).

 

REFERENCE 4

Fan YY Chapkin RS Ramos KS

Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro.

In: J Nutr (1996 Sep) 126(9):2083-8

This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

BOOKS

  1. Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.
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BONE FRACTURES SUPPORT

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD bone fracturesSeveral years ago a customer asked me for a program that could be helpful to those suffering with bone fractures. A relative had been diagnosed with multiple bone fractures in his ankle.

Since I have been counseling individuals regarding natural treatments for supporting those with bone fractures and injury for many years, I was able to provide a comprehensive program that could be helpful in recovery. More recently, we have introduced products and tools that can be even more supportive. Therefore, in this article we are providing an update to the bone fractures program.

Clearly, the need for such a program is great. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), about six million individuals suffer fractures each year in North America. In about 5–10 percent of cases, patients suffer either delayed healing or fractures that do not heal.

The problem of bone fractures is especially troubling for the elderly, many of whom suffer from osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become weak and break more easily. For an older person, a fracture affects quality of life because it significantly reduces function and mobility, and requires an extended period of recuperation.

The bone fracture program set forth below also works well to support the healing of other types of bone problems, including broken bones, bone surgery, osteoporosis, and wisdom tooth removal.

THE BONE FRACTURE PROGRAM

IMPORTANCE OF FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

The first element of the program consists of Foundational Supplements. This group of supplements ensures the body is being supplied with all of the basic elements needed for optimal function. The primary foundational supplements consists of 1) a therapeutic multivitamin and mineral formula, 2) a complete buffered Vitamin C with antioxidants formula, 3) an essential fatty acids supplement, and 4) a high-RNA superfoods formula.

Our Foundational Supplements are described in great detail on the HPDI website where we provide a free downloadable e-book “The Need for Foundational Supplements” (.pdf). Suffice it to say that the foundational supplements are a essential part of the program that ensure healing will take place quickly and effectively. I encourage everyone to become familiar with this information as foundational supplements are basic to any wellness or healing program.

bone fractures

ENHANCEMENT FORMULAS ARE CRITICAL FOR HEALING BONE FRACTURES

The second element of the program for healing bone fractures consists of Enhancement Formulas that strengthen the body as it relates to dealing with the damaging effects of bone fractures. These include a Vitamin D3 formula with the synergistic nutrients of Vitamin A and Vitamin K2 that are required for the rebuilding of bone as well as strengthening the body in many other ways. The HPDI Vitamin D3 Plus formula to designed to specifically address this need.

A second Enhancement Formula in this program is our comprehensive Bone Guardian formula that is based upon micronized veal bone that provides hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). Hydroxyapatite is the basic component of human bone that is 50% by volume and 70% by weight. Whereas the Vitamin D3 Plus formula builds the bone matrix, the Bone Guardian fills in the matrix with materials such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, boron, zinc, manganese, copper, silica, and strontium. HPDI sells Bone Guardian in both the tablet and capsule forms. The capsule form may be better for older people who are able to absorb capsules better than tablets.

A third Enhancement Formula to the program is additional amounts of Vitamin C. Vitamin C is known to participate in every step of the process of building collagen, which is a key component of bone. Vitamin C has been shown to increase bone mass density. We recommend slowly increasing your intake of buffered Vitamin C until you reach your bowel tolerance. This can be accomplished by increasing your intake of HPDI’s foundational supplement PRO-C™ formula. The PRO-C has the added value of containing oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape seed, skin, & pulp. OPCs in the body are able to strongly crosslink and strengthen new and damaged collagen fibers needed needed to repair bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage.

SPECIFIC CONDITION FORMULAS TARGET BONE FRACTURES

The third element in the program are Specific Condition Formulas that directly address issues related to bone fractures. The first of these is the addition of a joint formula that allows the body to build and repair connective tissue and to significantly reduce inflammation in the area of bone fractures. In most cases of fractures there will be damaged ligaments and tendons as well as inflammation in the area.

HPDI’s Joint Health Formula includes the ingredients glucosamine hydrochloride, MSM, and sea cucumber (a significant source of chondroiten sulfate) in addition to anti-inflammatory substances such as turmeric extract, rutin, and grape extract (seed, pulp, and skin) that have been extremely helpful in both repairing connective tissue and reducing pain and inflammation.

A second strongly recommended condition-specific formula is proteolytic enzymes. Because it is highly likely in the case of bone fractures and injury that there is significant tissue damage, a formula with pancreatic and plant enzymes as well as anti-inflammatories can be extremely helpful is clearing out the damaged tissue. This gives the body the opportunity to begin the rebuilding process much sooner.

Our recommended PROLYT formula contains the proteolytic enzymes bromelain, trypsin (pancreatic enzyme), and chymotrypsin (pancreatic enzyme), and the polyphenols/bioflavonoids turmeric extract (95% curcuminoids), quercetin and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape extract. This formula when taken on an empty stomach between meals is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and goes to work cleaning up any damaged tissues in the area surrounding a fracture and assists in reducing pain and inflammation.

TOPICAL MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FOR PAIN AND RAPID HEALING

A final Specific Condition Formula that I highly recommend for healing bone fractures is to rub Ancient Minerals Magnesium Oil on and surrounding the fracture area. Bones cannot heal without having adequate amounts of magnesium available. Unfortunately, many people are deficient in magnesium and even taking oral magnesium cannot easily provide sufficient amounts to an area with a bone fracture. Magnesium oil (mostly magnesium chloride) is quickly absorbed transdermally (via skin) and often can provide rapid healing and pain relief!

BODY pH COULD BE A FACTOR IN HEALING BONE FRACTURES

The processed food diets with a high protein and low vegetable content consumed by many people in the U.S. and elsewhere often produce conditions in the body of acidity. This in turn leads to decreased oxygenation of cells and encourages a greater amount of anaerobic processes in metabolism. In addition, when the body is acidic calcium can be taken from bones in order to balance the acidity. This can lead to poor healing of bone fractures.

In order to counter acidic conditions in the body we recommend the use of HPDI’s pH ADJUST formula. As a dietary supplement, take 1 gm (about a rounded ¼ tsp) in 4-8 ounces of purified water preferably away from food, or as directed by a health care professional.  For extremely acidic conditions, try 4–10 doses per day, depending on acidity level. Use pH paper to ensure pH levels remain balanced, and do not become too alkaline (alkalosis may occur above pH 8.2).

TESTING pH LEVELS: The best way to test pH levels is to use litmus paper, which HPDI offers in rolls (Hydrion brand) for this purpose. You can test salivary or urinary pH. In order to test salivary pH, simply use a small strip of pH paper to dip into a small amount of saliva. Advantages of pH paper include rapid results, ease of use, and cost effectiveness.

pH Paper bone fractures protocol

The color of the litmus paper indicates the pH level of the body fluid tested. Most litmus paper comes with an indicator chart showing colors corresponding to various pH levels. Alkaline states will generally produce a dark green, blue or purple color (most basic). Acidic states will range from yellow (most acidic) to light green.

Salivary pH and urinary pH are significantly affected by recent food consumption and other factors, so it it best to test pH hours after meals or in the morning when you awake. We prefer to measure urinary pH since results are more consistent. Measuring urinary pH is a simple as placing a few drops of urine on the paper or dipping the paper into a sample cup of fresh urine.

A consistent pH measurement of less than 7.0 indicates that you are too acidic (values less than 6.2 show extreme acidity). This indicates that you should consume more alkaline forming foods (usually vegetables) and/or take pH ADJUST. A single dose of pH ADJUST can change conditions in the body from acidic to alkaline within a few hours.

GENETIC VARIATIONS IN YOUR VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE (VDR) MAY BE AN IMPORTANT FACTOR

The VDR gene (contained in every cell of the body) provides instructions for making a protein called vitamin D receptor (VDR), which allows the body to respond appropriately to vitamin D. This vitamin can be acquired from foods in the diet or made in the body by exposure to from sunlight. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining the proper balance of several minerals in the body, including calcium and phosphate, which are essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. One of vitamin D’s major roles is to control the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestines into the bloodstream. Vitamin D is also involved in several process unrelated to bone formation.

VDR attaches (binds) to the active form of vitamin D, known as calcitriol. Calcitrol is produced in the body from Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the liver and kidneys. The interaction with calcitriol allows VDR to partner with another protein called retinoid X receptor (RXR). The resulting complex of proteins then binds to particular regions of DNA, known as vitamin D response elements, and regulates the activity of vitamin D-responsive genes. By turning these genes on or off, VDR helps control calcium and phosphate absorption and other processes.

In recent years, genetic tests have become available that show VDR variations can cause serious conditions related to low bone density and other important body functions such a higher blood glucose levels or lower immune system function. If a person is having little success in healing bone fractures, it is possible that VDR variations are a key factor of causation.

In such cases, we recommend having genetic testing done to determine if VDR variations are present. Recently, HPDI has teamed with a genetic testing company (BodySync, Inc.) and sells the BodySync test kits on our Reseller site. Please click here to see our blog article regarding the BodySync genetic test. Among the genes tested for in the test are three variations of the VDR gene. Resellers can purchase the test kits directly from HPDI and retail customers can call us  (800-228-4265) to find out how we can help them get a test kit and support them with any associated counseling regarding the results.

SUGGESTED SUPPLEMENT SCHEDULE – BONE FRACTURES

I have included all of the above supplements including recommended dosages plus more related to having an excellent diet in the table provided below.

Description AM Noon PM Night Comments
PRO-C 2 caps 2 caps 2 caps Take with meals or with snack.
Bone Guardian 

Bone Guardian Caps (easier to absorb)

3 tabs

3 caps

 

3 caps

3 tabs

3 caps

Take with meals.

Take with meals.

Mighty Multi-Vite! or
Multi Two — Multivitamins
2 caps or
1 tab
2 caps or
1 tab
Take with meals.
Essential Fats plus E 2 softgel 2 softgel 2 softgel Take with meals.
PROLYT – Proteolytic Enzyme Formula 2 caps 2 caps 2 caps 2 caps Take between meals.
Buffered Vitamin C, Tablets — 1,000 mg (1 gm) or Powder (1/4 tsp = 1 gm) 2 tabs or
1/2 tsp
2 tabs or
1/2 tsp
2 tabs or 1/2 tsp 2 tabs or 1/2 tsp Best with meals, but other times are okay. Start with 2 tabs or 1/2 tsp twice per day and add another 2 tabs or 1/2 tsp every few days until you are taking 8 tabs or 2 tsp per day.
Vitamin D3 Plus 5,000 IU 1 softgel 1 softgel Take with meals. Reduce to 1 softgel after 2 months.
Joint Health Formula 2 caps 2 caps 2 caps Take between meals and away from Bone Guardian.
Magnesium Oil 10 pumps 10 pumps 10 pumps 10 pumps Spray on affected area – or nearby area.
Rejuvenate! Plus or
Rejuvenate! (original)
1 scoop 1 scoop Take as a meal by itself or with fruit/berries.

ADDITIONAL NUTRIENTS FOR BONE FRACTURES

Additional nutrients that may be helpful include pH ADJUST (to balance excess acidity in the body),  Warrior Mist™ for pain relief (rub on adjacent area several times daily), Echinacea (as drops or capsules), N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine – NAC (2 gms per day), Progesterone Cream – for women (1/4–1/2 tsp twice daily), and Prescript-Assist™ probiotics (2 capsules daily) if on antibiotics.

PROPER DIET IS ESSENTIAL

Consume a diet that provides good amounts of protein which is needed by the body to support the healing of bone fractures. Eat meats, poultry and fish (e.g., sardines, salmon, mackerel) in the amount of a 5–10 ounces per day. Ensure a good intake of organic vegetables, including high levels of dietary fiber. Drink 16 oz per day of fresh vegetable juices from carrot, celery, beets, cabbage, etc.

Other healthy foods (preferably organic) include fruits, whole grains (e.g., brown rice, millet, and quinoa), beans, nuts and seeds (sunflower, chia, flax, pumpkin, almond, walnut and sesame in small amounts — 2 or 4 ounces — are good). Try eating Hank’s Vegetable Soup several times a week. Avoid all sweets (sugar), processed/refined foods (white bread and pasta), preservatives, and artificial flavors and colors. Vary your diet.

HYDROTHERAPY (WATER THERAPY) FOR BONE FRACTURES

An additional treatment that can be useful is hydrotherapy. In particular, hot and cold showers are a very effective way to move the blood and create circulation. This can speed up both detoxification and delivery of healing nutrients to the area of a bone fracture. Here’s how to do this. Once daily, take a complete hot and cold shower. You will start with hot water for one minute, then cold for one minute. Repeat this seven (7) times so the shower should last about 15 minutes.

Another time, daily, you can perform a complete hot and cold shower routine again or a partial one just applying the water directly to or near the area where there is a bone fracture. While you are doing both hot and cold showers, pay special attention to any affected area and massage it as vigorously as is safe and comfortable. If a shower is impossible, then alternate hot packs and ice packs on the area of the bone fracture.

BONE FRACTURES – CONCLUSION

By following the recommendations and suggested supplement schedule, healing time for bone fractures can be significantly reduced and fractures may heal more completely with fewer complications. By ensuring your body receives the proper nutrients it needs to heal itself, and by engaging in other relevant practices (e.g., hydrotherapy), you and/or your loved ones may be able to deal with bone fractures successfully, and continue a healthy, vibrant lifestyle.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

HPDI REJUVENATION PROGRAM

REJUVENATION PROGRAM PART 6 (INCLUDES HYDROTHERAPY)

REJUVENATE!™ SUPERFOODS

ULTIMATE PROTECTOR™

“FRED’S FAVORITE VEGETABLE JUICE RECIPE: ‘THE DOCTOR'”

2

THE NEED FOR IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

Dr. Hank Liers PhD iodine supplementationFred Liers PhD iodine supplementationThe Orthomolecular Medicine News Service (OMNS) published on June 12 “The Need for Iodine Supplementation.” We believe strongly in the need for iodine supplementation, especially given the fact that more than 90% of the US population is iodine deficient. For this reason we make available both Nascent Iodine and Lugol’s Iodine Solution 2 to our customers.

We present the full OMNS article (below), as a source of valuable information to our resellers and Creating Health Naturally readers. The factors contributing to massive-scale iodine deficiency remain virtually unchanged over decades. This has led to a greater need for educating health professionals and individuals about the critical importance of iodine supplementation.

Another useful article discussing the benefits of iodine supplementation was published August 2 by Dr. Mark Sircus, OMD: “Iodine, Thyroid and Low Body Temperature.” ~

The Need for Iodine Supplementation

by Wojciech Rychlik, PhD

(OMNS, June 12, 2017) Feeling tired, having low energy or depression, gaining weight, memory problems, having dry skin, dry mouth, or immune system issues? There is good chance your body needs iodine supplementation. Why iodine? Because this essential to human health element has been singled out as dangerous, for several obscure reasons, and it has been gradually eliminated from our diet, and even worse, replaced by its antagonist, bromine. This trend has been termed, iodophobia (1). It is a cause of widely occurring hypothyroidism in many developed countries.

Iodine: How Much?

Iodine deficiency is associated with (2, 3, 4):

  • Fibrocystic breast disease leading to breast cancer and stomach cancer
  • Goiter (enlarged thyroid)
  • Mental issues from reduced alertness, lowered IQ, autism to cretinism, lack of iodine for the fetus leads to cretinism, and in milder cases to autism and ADHD
  • Slow metabolism, leading to tiredness, sluggishness, fatigue, apathy, depression, and insomnia
  • Inability to produce saliva, dry skin, and lack of sweating
  • Lack of optimal detoxification, especially of bromides, fluorides, and heavy metals
  • Sensitivity to temperature changes, and cold hands and feet
  • Muscle pain, fibrosis, and fibromyalgia
  • Erectile dysfunction, infertility and miscarriages, and low sex drive
  • Overweight
  • High blood pressure, and increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has published probable safe upper limits for dietary intake of iodine (5). They range from 150 micrograms (mcg) per kilogram (kg) per day in newborn infants to 30mcg/kg/day in adults. That is 2 milligrams (2,000 micrograms) daily for a 146-pound adult. The safe upper limit is higher during pregnancy and lactation (40 mcg/kg/day).

Treatments for Hypothyroidism

The simplest method to deal with an underactive thyroid is proper supplementation with iodine, called orthoiodosupplementation. If the thyroid is damaged, then supplementation with thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3, the main biologically active hormone) may be necessary. Supplementation (6). with these hormones should be done under close supervision of a medical professional. However, supplementation with inorganic iodine is generally much safer, as the body “knows” how much T4 and T3 need to make. There are also drugs that change physiology of iodine metabolism, but this subject is beyond the scope of this article. Pharmaceutical companies pressure doctors to avoid inexpensive orthoiodosupplementation, so you won’t likely get a prescription for inexpensive Lugol’s solution from a mainstream practitioner.

One caveat to supplementation with iodine is the autoimmune illness called Hashimoto’s disease, or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, which is one of the potential causes of hypothyroidism. Unfortunately, when hypothyroidism is diagnosed, the possibility that Hashimoto’s disease underlies this condition has not always been properly tested. Therefore, Hashimoto’s disease has often been misdiagnosed. Doctors usually treat this condition with hormone replacement therapy, and some believe that excessive iodine intake may trigger it in susceptible people (7). Always ask your doctor if iodine supplements are right for you.

History of Iodine Usage and “Iodophobia”

This subject has been covered in detail by Dr. Guy E. Abraham (8,9,10). The iodine element was discovered in 1811 by B. Courtois. In 1850–1853 A. Chatin noted that goiter and cretinism are rare in geological zones rich in iodine and frequent where iodine is in short supply, and that goiter can be prevented by iodine supplementation. In 1895 E. Baumann proposed that iodine is the active element in the thyroid gland.

By the time Bauman identified large concentrations of iodine in the thyroid gland in 1895, pharmaceutical and apothecary preparations containing iodine, excluding thyroid extracts, were widely used as a panacea.

To quote Kelley: (11) “The variety of diseases for which iodine was prescribed in the early years is astonishing – paralysis, chorea, scrofula, lacrimal fistula, deafness, distortions of the spine, hip-joint disease, syphilis, acute inflammation, gout, gangrene, dropsy, carbuncles, whitlow, chilblains, burns, scalds, lupus, croup, catarrh, asthma, ulcers, and bronchitis – to mention only a few. Indeed, tincture of iodine, iodoform, or one of the iodides, was applied to almost every case that resisted the ordinary routine of practice; and between 1820 and 1840 there appeared a remarkable series of essays and monographs testifying to the extraordinary benefits to be achieved by this new and potent remedy.”

Unfortunately, these monographs have virtually disappeared from US medical libraries. In the mid-1800s, iodine treatments of some diseases called for ingestion of gram (1,000 mg) amounts per day. However, most treatments were from 5 to 50 mg daily. The recommended daily amount of iodine by Dr. G. E. Abraham is 0.1-0.3 ml Lugol containing 12.5-37.5 mg elemental iodine. This is the amount of iodine needed for whole body sufficiency, based on a recently reported iodine/iodide-loading test (12). Thyroid gland sufficiency for iodide is achieved with a lower dose.

Lugol's iodine supplementation

The first iodophobic authority emerged in early 1900s. Prof. T. Kochler reported that he suffered from overactive thyroid following ingestion of iodide (just a single individual case, not a statistical research study!) Despite this, the number of applications grew. In an International Index published in 1956, and devoted exclusively to iodine pharmaceuticals, no less than 1,700 approved iodine-containing products were listed. In 1948 Wolff and Chaikoff published that a serum inorganic iodide level at a concentration of 1 µM blocks (one micromolar) the synthesis of thyroid hormones, resulting in hypothyroidism and goiter in rats. But this conclusion was erroneous as they even did not measure thyroid hormones in the rats studied, and of course, hypothyroidism and goiter were not observed in those rats. Many organic forms of iodinated drugs were quite poisonous. Unfortunately, medical establishment did not make a distinction between organic and inorganic forms of iodine, and iodophobia became more popular.

Decades ago, iodine was added to bread so that one slice contained 150 mcg of iodine (the current recommended daily allowance). In the 1980s, bromine replaced iodine in bread. Since bromide is an antagonist to iodine (it is goitrogenic), it worsened iodine deficiency in the US. Moreover, a big push to remove salt from our diet (the only grocery item still supplemented with iodine) exacerbated the problem. The only developed nation that resisted iodophobia is Japan, statistically the healthiest and longest living nation on the planet. Their average daily consumption of iodine is around 5 mg, with various reports ranging from 1 mg to 18 mg. In a study of reported daily iodine intake versus total number of clinical symptoms, an intake of approximately 1 mg per day correlated with the lowest number of reported symptoms, that is, the highest level of health (13). Recent popularization of bromides in our food supplies likely increased this amount.

According to Dr. Abraham, (14) “proper amounts of iodine in the food supply should be considered one of a nation’s greatest assets. Removing iodine from the food supply is a major mistake. Supplying a daily intake of iodine sufficient for the whole body (100-400 times the RDA) gives protection against goitrogens and radioactive iodine/iodide fallout; improves immune functions, resulting in an adequate defense system against infection; decreases singlet oxygen formation which is the major cause of oxidative damage to DNA and macromolecules, resulting in an anticarcinogenic effect in every organ; results in a detoxifying effect by increasing urinary excretion of the toxic metals lead, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum, as well as the goitrogens fluoride and bromide; normalizes hormone receptor functions resulting in improved response to thyroid hormones both endogenous and exogenous; and results in better control of blood sugar in diabetic patients; stabilizes cardiac rhythm, obviating the need for the toxic sustained release form of iodine, amiodarone; and normalizes blood pressure without medication in hypertensive patients. Iodine deficiency is the major cause of cognitive impairment, worldwide.”

The Iodine-Cancer Connection

The body requires iodine to metabolize both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. A substance called delta-iodolactone, a derivative of arachidonic acid, which is produced in the thyroid gland and breast tissue, prostate, colon, and the nervous system, is a regulator of a process called cellular apoptosis (“cell death”). Ascorbic acid is required to stimulate intracellular hydrogen peroxide synthesis that, in turn, provides the energy to make iodine free radicals necessary for this reaction. When the level of delta-iodolactone is high enough, the process of apoptosis can then kill cancer cells. (15)

Unfortunately, the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iodine — about 150 mcg per day — will not allow delta-iodolactone to be efficiently formed in the thyroid gland. The thyroid requires higher iodine concentrations to efficiently produce it. Researchers have found that 100 times the RDA amount of iodine is optimal to produce delta-iodolactone. That equates to taking about 15 mg of iodine per day (15,16). These findings are important because they imply that there are some biochemical reactions that require much larger amounts of iodine than the current RDA. The mechanism by which delta-iodolactone induces cell death may be an important pathway for curing some types of cancer.

Forms of Iodine

Inorganic iodine exists in 6 oxidative states, from -1 to +7. The most reduced form (with most electrons) is iodide (I); an example is potassium iodide. The diatomic form of elemental iodine I2, has no electrical charge. Monoatomic iodine also has no electrical charge, but is unstable and highly reactive (free radical, labeled as an I with a dot, I* ). It can be produced by exposing I2 to ultraviolet light. Electric and magnetic fields won’t do it, as is sometimes incorrectly suggested. More oxidized forms of iodine are: hypoiodite (I+1), iodite (I+3), iodate (I+5), and periodate (I+7). The body’s metabolism may convert (reduce) these forms to biochemically available iodide, but at the cost of depleting its antioxidants. All forms of positively charged iodine are relatively poisonous, with established lethal doses (LD50) in the range of 35 to 2100 mg/kg. Elemental iodine (I2) and iodides (I) are non-poisonous. However, a bad “antiseptic” non-culinary taste of iodine (I2) suggests to our senses that this is not so good choice for supplementation.Nascent iodine supplementation

Despite that adverse taste, almost all the research on iodine supplementation has been done using Lugol’s Solution (17). The original solution is called 5% Lugol’s Iodine, but in reality it consists of 12.5% iodide/iodine or (I/[I3]) ions. Two drops of Lugol’s Solution (0.1 ml) contain 12.5 mg iodine/iodide mix. Iodine tablets that are a solid form of Lugol’s solution, were created to mask the taste and make the doses more precise for dietary supplementation.

I should mention a few points about Edgar Cayce’s atomidine. This famous visionary wrote several articles about the best form of iodine supplement (18). Some claim that this was iodine trichloride, but that cannot be true as this compound is toxic by ingestion and damaging to mucous membranes. It decomposes to ICl and poisonous gas Cl2 at 77 degrees C and also in water at room temperature (19). Most likely Cayce’s atomidine was simply a 1% iodine solution (I2) in 95% ethanol. I am surprised that there are educated people, even medical doctors who claim that “elemental monoatomic iodine” preparations (Atomidine, Nascent Iodine etc.) are the best forms of iodine supplements. May be it has something to do with efficient marketing? Elemental Iodine (I2) is soluble in glycerin. Replacement of ethanol with glycerol indeed makes these supplements more consumption-friendly, so they are sold by some vendors as superior products to Cayce’s ethanol-formulated one. Personally, I think glycerol-based I2 supplements are inferior to iodides; however, they are excellent antiseptics.

To defend the validity of Cayce’s vision, in thyroid, I ion and amino acid tyrosine react through a short intermediate step by forming monoatomic I* free radical (selenium and hydrogen peroxide are involved) to make monoiodotyrosine. Diiodotyrosine is formed analogical way, and finally, two of these molecules combine to produce thyroxine. All those steps are carried by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase, which is normally attached to the protein thyroglobulin. So, yes, monoatomic iodine I* exists in human bodies, and it directly reacts with tyrosine, but no, it wouldn’t be healthy to consume iodine free radicals as their high reactivity would prevent safe transport throughout the body.

In the mid-1930s the thyroid hormone thyroxine became available on the market. This was a blessing for people who had damaged their thyroid. Unfortunately, doctors started to prescribe this hormone to just about anybody with hypothyroidism, thinking that they can control better thyroid hormone levels than our bodies can. And, the “iodine is iodine, no matter what form” mentality became a dangerous trend, because most medical professionals do not fully appreciate the difference between the raw nutrient (iodine) and its product (hormone).

The pharmaceutical industry came up with lots of organic forms of iodine (NB: organic, meaning that iodine is bound to a carbon-atom-containing molecule and NOT meaning it’s grown in a pesticide-free environment), all relatively toxic and certainly not to be used without strict medical supervision. Only inorganic forms of iodine, I and I2, are safe for supplementation (20,21). Further, high doses of these supplements should still be supervised by your doctor.

Iodine Uses

Iodine plays critical role in human metabolism. Many researchers believe the RDA value of 150 mcg for iodine is too low, especially when this element is commonly substituted with competing element bromine. Therefore, the main use of iodine in dietary supplementation is to enable optimal thyroid function. There are a number of medical conditions where iodine is either essential or helpful. For best results, iodine/iodide should be supplemented with selenium, magnesium, copper (there is usually enough of it in tap water as copper is widely used in plumbing), vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and B3 (niacin). Ask your doctor before taking any iodine supplements, especially if you are on medications.

Elemental iodine (I2) is antibacterial and antifungal, so iodine or iodine/iodide solutions are commonly used topically to sterilize wounds, or internally to fight infections, such as vaginitis and sore throat, and also to sanitize drinking water. Because iodine is antibacterial, drinking it may cause friendly bacterial flora to suffer and result in diarrhea and stomach cramps (the same applies to Lugol’s solution, but to a lesser extent as it contains iodides as well).

Ingestion of iodides prevents the incorporation of destructive radioactive iodine into the body (mainly by the thyroid) in case of nuclear accidents. It also may help flushing already incorporated radioactive iodine from the thyroid, although too much iodine inhibits secretion of T4/T3 from the gland.

Common-Sense Cautions

Overdosing any of the iodine supplements can lead to swollen salivary glands, metallic aftertaste and skin rash and itching (that are usually due to rapid process of detoxification from heavy metals fluorides and bromides), faster heartbeat or palpitations and diarrhea. When supplementation is stopped, these symptoms will usually disappear quickly, often within one day. Iodine stabilizes thyroid hormone production, so it is an adaptogen, but in rare cases, such as acquired allergy to iodine (Hashimoto’s disease), it may actually misbalance it. In some cases, iodine supplementation can cause hypothyroidism, so it’s important to get checked by your doctor to make sure that your thyroid function is not worsened by supplementation. Some authors advising caution are Alan Christianson (22), Jeffrey Dach, (23) and Alan Gaby (24). Testing of levels of thyroid hormones along with testing and supplementation of mineral nutrients such as selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium calcium, and other trace minerals may prevent problems in cases where high doses of iodine/iodide might tend to cause Hashimoto’s disease. (23)

Inorganic Iodine Availability

The most common form of iodine supplement is Lugol’s solution (17). The original solution contains 5% of iodine and 10% iodide. Solid pill forms of Lugol’s solution are sold under several brand names. Potassium iodide (KI), my favorite iodine supplement, is available as tablets as well. Various products with kelp or other seaweed extracts contain iodides as well. Check the label when you buy as some of them are very diluted.

It is difficult to find inexpensive elemental iodine (I2) solution in alcohol. You can buy iodine crystals online and make the proper solution by yourself very easily (using either alcohol or glycerol). The monoatomic iodine concept is simply a marketing gimmick that has been created to inflate the price several fold. Note that if the monoatomic claims were really true, few would really want to drink free radicals, the only monoatomic form that exists. Iodine free radicals are not transported freely in our bodies because they are too reactive. Elemental iodine preparations, including iodine dissolved in glycerol, may be helpful products for external antiseptic use rather than a supplement.

Another form of iodine supplement includes a mixture of algae and thyroid extract in glycerin, water and ethanol. This is likely not harmful because it contains T3 and T4 only in very small amounts, and the recommended serving size is also small. Other complex formulae that contain elemental iodine are a useful antiseptic, but not a good supplement. Iodine trichloride should be avoided as a supplement because it is too toxic.(19)

Summary

The established RDA allowance for iodine (150 mcg/day) is inadequate for many individuals. In order to maintain optimum health, adults need 2-5 mg of iodide daily. Actually, this is in line with the upper safe limit of dietary intake of iodine established by FAO (30 mcg/kg/day). In case of a dysfunctional thyroid or other illnesses, such as fibrocystic breast disease or cancer, 15-50 mg daily may be needed. Ask your doctor about the alternatives to hormone therapy or taking iodine-containing organic drugs, because inexpensive orthoiodosupplementation would usually not be his/her first choice.

The best and safest form of iodine supplementation for a healthy adult is iodide. Iodides are naturally produced in larger quantities by various seaweeds.

Please consult your doctor about iodine supplementation, as in your particular case it may be contraindicated.

References:

1. Abraham GE. The History of Iodine in Medicine Part III: Thyroid Fixation and Medical Iodophobia. http://optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-16/PUB_16.htm

2. Dommisse J. MD Best Kept Secret (2009) http://www.westonaprice.org/modern-diseases/best-kept-secret/#sthash.vdrKPaJw.dpuf

3. http://theiodineproject.webs.com/addadhdautism.htm

4. Hamza RT1, Hewedi DH, Sallam MT. (2013) Iodine deficiency in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers: relation to disease severity. Arch Med Res. 44(7):555-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24120386

5. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2809e/y2809e0i.htm

6. Abraham GE. The Concept of Orthoiodosupplementation and Its Clinical Implications. https://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-06/IOD_06.htm

7. http://www.webmd.com/women/hashimotos-thyroiditis-symptoms-causes-treatments#1

8. Abraham GE. The History of Iodine in Medicine Part I: From Discovery to Essentiality. http://optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-14/PUB_14.htm

9. Abraham GE. The historical background of the Iodine Project. http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-08/IOD_08.htm

10. Abraham GE. The History of Iodine in Medicine Part II: The Search for and the Discovery of Thyroid Hormones. http://optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-15/PUB_15.htm

11. Kelly FC. “Iodine in medicine and pharmacy since its discovery , 1811-1961.” Proc R Soc Med, 1961; 54:831-836. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1869599/

12. Abraham GE. “The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice.” The Original Internist, 2004; 11(1):17-36. http://www.hakalalabs.com/Research/Abraham_OI_Mar04.pdf

13. Fallon Morell S. The Great Iodine Debate (2009) The WestonA. Price Foundation, http://www.westonaprice.org/modern-diseases/the-great-iodine-debate/

14. Abraham GE. The Wolff-Chaikoff Effect: Crying Wolf? https://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-04/IOD_04.html

15. Brownstein D. The Cancer-Iodine Connection, (2015) http://www.newsmax.com/Health/Dr-Brownstein/iodine-cancer-cell-death-fish-oil/2015/06/10/id/649877/

16. 6-Iodolactone, key mediator of antitumoral properties of iodine, M. Nava-Villalba, C. Aceves, (2014) Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators 112, 27-33. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263856609_6-Iodolactone_key_mediator_of_antitumoral_properties_of_iodine

17. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, R40 Lugol’s Iodine Solution (2001), http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm062245.htm

18. Review of Atomidine, International Wellness Directory, http://www.mnwelldir.org/docs/reviews/atomidine.htm

19. Material safety data sheet, http://www.mnwelldir.org/docs/history/Iodine_Trichloride.pdf

20. Abraham GE. The historical background of the Iodine Project http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-08/IOD_08.htm

21. Abraham GE and Brownstein D. A Rebuttal of Dr. Gaby’s Editorial on Iodine. (2005) Townsend Letter, The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, http://www.townsendletter.com/Oct2005/gabyrebuttal1005.htm

22. Christianson A. http://www.integrativehealthcare.com/why-i-discourage-high-dose-iodine/

23. Dach J. http://jeffreydachmd.com/iodine_is_safe

24. Gaby A. http://www.townsendletter.com/AugSept2005/gabyiodine0805.htm

Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: http://www.orthomolecular.org

Access the original OMNS article, “The Need for Iodine Supplementation”: http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v13n14.shtml

OMNS free subscription: http://orthomolecular.org/subscribe.html

OMNS article archive: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml

2

QUICKSILVER LIPOSOMAL FORMULAS – NEW PRODUCTS!

Fred Liers PhD quicksilver liposomal formulasOne of the most significant developments for nutrient uptake and assimilation is the advent of liposomal delivery systems. Once in the range of 300–5,000 nanometers, the latest liposomes are now just 20–100 nanometers (nm)!

The significance of these small liposomes—tiny bilayer lipid structures—is that there is a major increase in the amount of nutrient delivery to cells. That is, small liposomes show significantly greater efficiency at intracellular delivery of encapsulated compounds.

Liposomal delivery systems have evolved rapidly and now offer major advantages over nutritional supplements delivered by standard means—like capsules, tablets, powders, and liquids (e.g., tinctures).

Liposomal delivery systems first utilized multi-lamellar vesicles (MLV) ranging ins size from 300–5,000 nanometers. Later, “large” unilamellar vesicles (LUV) (100–300 nanometers) were developed. Products containing LUVs are more effectively assimilated than MLVs.

As noted, lipsomal technologies have shrunk liposome sizes to 20–100 nanometers (nm), the category size for small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). This means the body can far more easily assimilate nutrients delivered liposomally when the particle sizes are up to 10 times smaller than already effective liposome sizes.

Small liposomes (SUV) have a long circulation half-life and better cellular accumulation. Small lipid particles have the fastest uptake kinetics and can participate in paracellular (between cells) transport. The nutritional liposome industry is rapidly moving toward the use of small liposomes.

Key Point: Small liposomes (SUV) are significantly more efficient at intracellular delivery of encapsulated compounds. In a recent study with carefully sized liposomes, cellular uptake increased nine-fold as liposome size was decreased from 236 nm to 97 nm and was 34 fold higher at 64 nm.

Nutrients that can be delivered liposomally range from vitamin C and glutathione to many types of adaptogenic and medicinal herbs.

Benefits of Liposomal Delivery

  • Rapid update, assimilation, and movement into cells
  • Oral intake bypasses digestive system—nutrients go directly into body
  • High levels of nutrients assimilated
  • Reduced dosages and less “wasted” product
  • Nutrients penetrate smallest compartments in the body
  • Nutrients circulate widely
  • Precise intra-oral delivery
  • Simple manual pump from glass bottle
  • Easy water dispersability when desired
  • Good tasting!

Liposomal delivery systems are the future of nutritional supplements given all the advantages they confer. HPDI recognizes the value of liposomal products, and now offers the best formulas available—from Quicksilver Scientific, Inc.—to our customers.

QUICKSILVER LIPOSOMAL FORMULAS

HPDI offers four liposomal formulas from Quicksilver Scientific, the leader in nanoliposomal delivery systems. Each formula offers unparalleled uptake and assimilation—and good taste!—via inta-oral delivery. These products include:

Quicksilver liposomal formulas

HPDI offers four liposomal formulas from Quicksilver Scientific.

Liposomal Vitamin C with R-Lipoic Acid (mean size 50–100nm): Quicksilver Scientific’s Etheric Delivery™ system for Liposomal Vitamin C (with R-Lipoic Acid) is the most absorbable form of professional-grade Vitamin C. Vitamin C is essential to any detoxification program because it feeds the system that eliminates toxins. It is also very effective in removing lead and other heavy metals from our system and fighting off the free radicals that form in the liver during the first phase of detoxification.

R-Lipoic Acid (as sodium R-Lipoate) has an exceptionally well-documented ability to upregulate the glutathione system via the Nrf2 nuclear transcription pathway. This combination of liposomal vitamin C and R-Lipoate in a nanoliposomal delivery system potently harnesses the potential of Vitamin C to the power of a fully functioning glutathione system.

The absorption of conventional oral Vitamin C diminishes rapidly as the dose increases (e.g., about 19% for 1000 mg oral vitamin C). Nanosphere delivery greatly increases absorption and for some compounds can provide higher intracellular delivery than an IV administration.

Quicksilver Vitamin C

Quicksilver Liposomal Vitamin C with R-Lipoic Acid

Suggested Usage: General use for antioxidant and detoxification function, take eight pumps per day (1,000 mg of Vitamin C and 50 mg of R-Lipoate). For advanced intermittent use, use up to 50 pumps per day (6,250 mg Vitamin C and 312.5 mg R-Lipoate) or more, in divided doses throughout the day. For detoxification protocols, especially with metal toxicities, build dosage gradually, starting from low doses, as they are tolerated. If strong detoxification reactions are observed, back off dosage. Children should start at approximately 1/4 of adult (two pumps per day) dosage and work up. For topical application, one pump can cover the face for a daily treatment, or use several pumps as a mask and leave on for 10–15 minutes; skin can be re-wetted and left for another 10 minutes before rinsing off excess.

Liposomal Glutathione: Quicksilver’s Phospholipid Encapsulation Etheric Delivery system protects glutathione from digestive enzymes that otherwise inhibit absorption of oral glutathione supplementation. In cell cultures, liposomal products have demonstrated over 100 times more efficiency for intracellular delivery than IV-based liposomal glutathione.

Quicksilver’s Liposomal Glutathione comes with a precision pump to accurately deliver 50 mg of reduced glutathione and 68 mg of injectable-grade essential phospholipids (derived from sunflower oil) per pump. The patent-pending process, plus a natural lemon flavoring, allows this product to be taken intra-orally for maximum absorption without the foul sulfur taste typical of liposomal glutathione products. The formula can be taken every 3–4 hours for even delivery throughout the day. One bottle delivers 100, 0.5 ml doses.

Quicksilver Liposomal Glutathione

Quicksilver Liposomal Glutathione with Lemon Mint

Suggested Usage: For general antioxidant and detoxification protection, use eight pumps per day (400 mg glutathione). For advanced protection, use up to 20 per day (1,000 mg glutathione) or more, in divided doses throughout the day. For large doses, take two pumps at a time to allow for maximum oral absorption, and hold at least 30 seconds before swallowing. Children should start at approximately 1/4 of adult (two pumps per day) dosage and work up.

Liposomal Colorado Hemp Oil: This product uses non-THC (<0.3%) cannabidiol (CBD) from all-natural Colorado Hemp Oil. CBD is the non-psychoactive part of the industrial hemp plant. Quicksilver Scientific’s liposomal delivery of Nanoemulsified Colorado Hemp Oil far outpaces tinctures and is faster, stronger and more effective. Cannabidiol interacts with our body’s naturally occurring cannabinoid receptors to aid with pain relief and enhanced feelings of well being. The advanced technology behind this groundbreaking liquid delivery method makes for precise dosing and immediate effect.

Because of the known interaction of CBD with these cannabidiol receptors, much new research has focused on CBD’s receptor-mediated neuro-protective, antiemetic, and analgesic properties, and of its effect on mood and other aspects of mental health.

New research on gene transcription modulation offers an even deeper look into the biochemical mechanisms at work when ingesting CBD. Research in this vein has shown more than 1,000 genes that are differentially upregulated by CBD (a more than ten-fold increase than those affected by THC). In general, the effects increased cell stress responses—including antioxidant-defense and detoxification genes (mainly via EhRE/ARE-Nrf2 induction)—and downregulated many inflammation-mediating genes. These effects combined with CBDs NMDA-receptor-stabilizing effects, show great promise for its use in calming the neuro-inflammatory responses accompanying neurotoxic and chronic illness states.

Quicksilver Nanoemulsified Colorado Hemp Oil

Nanoemulsified Colorado Hemp Oil

Suggested Use: Take 1–4 pumps by mouth, holding for 30 seconds before swallowing. Repeat if needed. Four pumps contain 30 mg of Hemp Extract (aerial parts) and 12 mg of Phytocannabinoid Diols. There are 25 four-pump servings per container. Best taken on an empty stomach 10 minutes before meals. May be stirred into a small amount of water. Once opened, use within 60 days. Store at room temperature and away from light.

Liposomal NanoMojo (adaptogenic blend): Dr. Christopher Shade, PhD of Quicksilver Scientific, collaborated with master herbalist Dan Moriarty of Sun Horse Energy to create NanoMojo, a groundbreaking functional medicine product. By combining Moriarty’s unique adaptogenic formulation with Dr. Shade’s state-of-the-art liposomal encapsulation, they’ve overcome the limitations of poor oral adsorption and made the phytochemicals quickly available at the cellular level. This new innovative blend of adaptogens from around the world is maximized for effectiveness.

Adaptogens are non-toxic phytochemicals that help the body achieve homeostatic balance under adverse conditions that would typically be associated with sympathetic (fight or flight) reactions. They help regulate natural harmony, adrenal balance, and stress accommodation (resistance to stress). In fact, adaptogenic herbs have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 4,000 years and Chinese medicine for nearly 3,000 years to increase energy (chi) and concentration.

Scientific literature reports that adaptogenic herbs play significant roles in decreasing markers of stress-activated protein kinases, cortisol, and nitric oxide. These markers indicate a lowered level of systemic stress and inflammation and decreased symptoms of an over-taxed adrenal system.

NanoMojo contains the following adaptogenic herbs: Açaí, Lyceum (Goji) fruit, Gynostemma (Jiaogulan) (aerial parts), American Ginseng (root), Siberian Ginseng (root), Schisandra (fruit), Licorice (root), Rhodiola (root), Astragalus (root), Reishi (fruiting body), Catuaba (bark), Stinging Nettle (aerial parts), Saw Palmetto (fruit), Guarana (seed), Ashwagandha (root), Tribulus (aerial parts), Epimedium (aerial parts), Yohimbe (bark), and Organic Maple (sap) syrup.

NanoMojo helps your body adapt to the various conditions that cause stress, something most of us experience daily. This liposomal formulation is the culmination of more than eight years of research and development. Not only is it effective, but it also tastes very good.

Quicksilver liposomal NanoMojo adaptogens

NanoMojo Liposomal Adaptogenic Blend

Directions: Take two pumps twice daily, or more. May be mixed into a small amount of water. Best taken on an empty stomach. Once opened, use within 60 days.

CONCLUSION

The advent of small liposomes means significantly greater uptake and assimilation of nutrients than ever before. This means you stand to benefit greatly from advanced intra-orally delivered nanoliposomal formulas like those developed by Quicksilver Scientific, Inc.

 

 

SOURCES & RESOURCES

ARTICLES

Recent Advances in Liposome Technology (HPDI blog)

PRODUCTS

Quicksilver Scientific Liposomal Formulas (HPDI website)

Liposomal Vitamin C with R-Lipoic Acid

Liposomal Glutathione with Lemon Mint

Nanoemulsified Colorado Hemp Oil

NanoMojo Liposomal Adaptogenic Blend

 

HOMOCYSTEINE GENETICS – COENZYME B VITAMINS

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD homocysteine coenzyme B vitaminsWe previously published an article titled FOLATE INGREDIENTS – FOLINIC ACID & 5-MTHF in which we discuss how coenzyme folate vitamins are far superior to the synthetic folic acid form. In today’s article, I take a more in-depth look at how homocysteine is formed from methionine, how genetics affects the metabolic pathways, and how B vitamins are used in metabolic pathways.

One way to look at the metabolic pathways of methionine (an essential amino acid) is that it provides a way for the body to convert this sulfur containing amino acid either to cysteine and its key by-products glutathione, taurine, and sulfates or allows remethylation back to methionine to occur using either the Folate Cycle or the Trimethyl glycine (betaine) pathways.

Figure 1 shows these metabolic pathways including the vitamins required at each step including vitamin B6 (as P-5-P), methylcobalamin, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF). In addition, it shows the key enzymes produced by the body at each step. These enzymes include CBS (cystathione beta synthase), BHMT (betaine homocysteine methyltransferase), MS (methionine synthase), and MTHFR (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase).

homocysteine metabolism diagram

Figure 1. Metabolic Pathways in Methionine and Homocysteine Metabolism

HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS

It is highly important that the various metabolic pathways function correctly to keep homocysteine at healthy levels (6–8 µmol/L). Unfortunately, high levels of homocysteine in the body (10–20 µmol/L) are a factor in a wide range of health issues, including:

  • Greater risk for heart problems, including coronary artery disease, heart attacks, stroke, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and abnormal cholesterol levels. This is due to increased inflammation, sometimes due to blood clotting spontaneously, and because of blockages of the major arteries.
  • Mental abnormalities such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and other mental problems are more common among people with high homocysteine
  • Migraines and headaches in a significant percentage of the population
  • In those who suffer from high homocysteine due to having nutritional deficiencies anemia, aches and pains, hearing loss, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), slowed development, and birth defects might also be possible
  • Greater risk for dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, brain atrophy, and other cognitive problems
  • In children, skeletal and developmental abnormalities including having a curved spine or protruding chest and rib cage. Some patients appear very tall and thin, and some might also have very long, thin “spider-like” toes and fingers.
  • Behavioral problems, including ADHD, autism and other learning disabilities

ROLE OF GENETICS IN HOMOCYSTEINE METABOLISM

Ten or more years ago, questions of how genetics enters into homocysteine metabolism were unlikely to be asked. However, in recent years DNA testing has advanced and is now available to everyone (for example, see my article about Bodysync’s genetic test, DISCOVERING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS THROUGH ADVANCED GENETIC TESTING.

You may have heard a great deal about MTHFR (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase). This gene is involved in folate metabolism and has a central role in methylation processes like repair of and building new DNA in dividing cells.

In the remethylation pathway for conversion of homocysteine to methionine, MTHFR plays a key role in converting folate into 5-MTHF which is needed along with B12 as methylcobalamin in order for the conversion to take place. Genetic variations in MTHFR have been studied in depth. Of the many variations studies the most significant ones appear to be variations of C677C such as C677T (referred to as heterozygous) or T677T (referred to as homozygous). The heterozygous variant appears in about 30–50% of the population and causes somewhat less efficiency in the conversion of folic acid to 5-MTHF. However, the homozygous variation occurs in about 10% of the population and can have serious effects due to converting little homocysteine back to methionine.

Another variation in MTHFR is called A1298A. These variations are A1298C and C1298C and will have similar effects to the C677C variations. It was interesting to me when I recently analyzed my Bodysync genetic test results showing I carry the variation A1298C (heterozygous), which indicates I may not be effectively converting homocysteine back to methionine.

Additionally, my Bodysync genetic test results also indicate that I have heterozygous variations in the CBS enzyme shown in Figure 1, as well as heterozygous variations in MTR and MTRR enzymes, which are involved with B12 levels in the remethylation pathway. These results indicate that I need to take higher levels of methylcobalamin and 5-MTHF.

IMPORTANCE OF COENZYME FORMS AND PROPER AMOUNTS OF B VITAMINS

Many of the B vitamins on the market today unfortunately are in synthetic form. The body can only use the natural coenzyme forms effectively. For example, the body needs vitamin B6 in the form of P-5-P (pyridoxal-5-phosphate), folate in the form of L-5-MTHF, and B12 in the form of methylcobalamin for proper metabolism of methionine. In some cases the body can use the synthetic forms of pyridoxine HCl, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin but pays a cost (e.g., in time and energy) by having to convert synthetic forms to coenzyme forms.

Add to the prevalence of synthetic B vitamins, the fact that genetic deficiencies are more common than previously assumed, and it becomes clear that the coenzyme forms of B vitamins in the proper amounts are extremely important.

Fortunately, I have always believed it best to include as many coenzyme forms as possible in the nutritional supplements I formulate (over the past 27 years). For example, all HPDI multivitamins include coenzymes of B1, B2, B6, B12, and folate (as 5-MTHF and folinic acid). This is uncommon in most multivitamin formulas on the market. For this reason our supplements are ideally suited to the prevention or resolution of most genetic problems regarding homocysteine.

In addition, I have always chosen to include higher amounts than most multivitamins on the market. We also make available 5-MTHF one milligram (1 mg) capsules and methylcobalamin five milligram (5 mg) sublingual tablets. When genetic variations are in play as discussed above, then providing relatively higher amounts of coenzyme B vitamins that support important requirements in the body seems necessary.

Interestingly, several other nutrients are involved in the pathways involving methionine and homocysteine. These include zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin B2. Our multivitamin formulas and magnesium formulas, especially Myo-Mag with its coenzyme B1, B2, and B6, are recommended to support these nutrient needs. Finally, it has been found that N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) can significantly lower homocysteine (by up to 50%), most likely because its gives the body an excellent source of cysteine without have to use methionine.

SUMMARY

In this article, I have shown the value of the use of genetic testing and high-quality coenzyme B vitamins in resolving health issues associated with high values of homocysteine in the body.

 

SOURCES & RESOURCES

DISCOVERING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS THROUGH ADVANCED GENETIC TESTING.

FOLATE INGREDIENTS – FOLINIC ACID & 5-MTHF

The Homocysteine Revolution by Kilmer S. McCully, MD

Role of hyperhomocysteinemia in endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombotic disease
(Cell Death and Differentiation 11, S56–S64)

PRODUCTS

5-MTHF
(coenzyme folate)

Methylcobalamin
(vitamin B12)

B-Complex-50

HPDI Multivitamins