The Truth About Essential Fatty Acids

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD essential fatty acidsMany in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.


Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.

Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.

essential fatty acids

Figure 1 – Basic diagram of fatty acids structure

The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.

Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.


The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

essential fatty acids

Figure 2 – fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body

The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).

In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.


Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their “enhanced” derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.

Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.

Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.

Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in “fight or flight” (stress) situations, – the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.

Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.

It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.

Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.

Essential Fats

Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).


The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

essential fatty acids

Figure 3 – Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body

The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.


Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.

Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. “Enhanced forms” are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.

In Chapkin’s research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.


Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).

Essential Fats Plus E


  1. UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
  2. BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
  3. FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
  4. ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!

COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.

EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
360 mg *
DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
240 mg *
GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid 18:3 omega 6)
(from 450 mg of cold pressed borage seed oil)
90 mg *
Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil) 24 IU 81%
Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
(from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
28.8 mg *

* No established Daily Value
† Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet


Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
• Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
• Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
• Mediate Immune Response
• Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
• Dilate or constrict blood vessels
• Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
• Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
• Regulate the rate at which cells divide
• Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
• Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
• Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
• Regulate nerve transmission


Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.

We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.


The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.


The following includes abstracts of Chapkin’s published research on essential fatty acids.


Chapkin RS Somers SD Erickson KL

Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid.

In: Lipids (1988 Aug) 23(8):766-70

Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.

Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.



Chapkin RS Carmichael SL

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses.

In: Lipids (1990 Dec) 25(12):827-34

This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.



Fan YY Chapkin RS

Mouse peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E1 synthesis is altered by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

In: J Nutr (1992 Aug) 122(8):1600-6

The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).



Fan YY Chapkin RS Ramos KS

Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro.

In: J Nutr (1996 Sep) 126(9):2083-8

This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


  1. Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.


Fred Liers PhD chlorellaRejuvenate!™ superfoods are the world’s first superfoods formulated specifically to provide therapeutic levels of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, nucleosides, and nucleotides). HPDI currently offers three versions: Rejuvenate! Original, Rejuvenate! PLUS, and Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs.

All three Rejuvenate! formulas provide at least 340 mg of dietary nucleic acids per serving. The pioneer nucleic acid researcher, Dr. Benjamin S. Frank studied the beneficial effects of nucleic acids on humans and animals during the 1960s and 70s.

Dr. Frank concluded that dietary nucleic acids are essential nutrients for health. He advised consuming a range of 300–1,500 mg daily. However, he noted that healthy benefits are apparent at levels as low as 75 mg.

Hank Liers, PhD formulated the Rejuvenate! line of superfoods to leverage the powers of dietary nucleic acids for health. These superfood powders are nutrient dense, tasty, easy to consume, portable, and powerfully healthful.

While all Rejuvenate formulas contain dietary nucleic acids from a variety of sources, Rejuvenate! Original and Rejuvenate! PLUS contain chlorella, known to contain the highest levels of nucleic acids among all foods.

Chlorella also provides many benefits beyond nucleic acids. In this article, I will explore chlorella as an important ingredient in Rejuvenate! superfoods, as well as a superfood in its own right.


Chlorella provides more dietary nucleic acids than any other green superfood ingredient.


Chlorella is a single-celled, fresh-water aquatic plant, named so after the Greek word chloros meaning “green”— because it contains large amounts of the green phytonutrient chlorophyll. Millions of people take chlorella every day (many in East Asia) because it is a highly nutritious superfood.

Researchers who’ve studied chlorella extensively say it’s nature’s “perfect food.” In fact, NASA studied it as a food for astronauts. Chlorella provides a broad spectrum of nutrients, including protein, essential fats, fiber, chlorphyll, vitamins, and minerals, including trace minerals.

Chlorella also provides the highest levels of dietary nucleic acids among all foods. Dietary nucleic acids (e.g., RNA) are now recognized as powerful, natural substances that provide supernutrition, rejuvenate, heal, and help create optimal health.


Chlorella can help you look and feel younger. Studies confirm what people taking chlorella have long experienced—the anti-aging effects of dietary nucleic acids on skin, eyes, hair, hands, and other visible parts of the body. Skin typically becomes smoother, tighter, and clearer. Deep lines, wrinkles, and “crow’s feet” are often reduced.

Even acne and foot calluses can clear up as skin becomes softer and healthier. Hair color may return and its texture may become richer and thicker. These changes are more than skin deep. They reflect inner changes created by the nutritional powers of dietary nucleic acids for optimal health.

According to pioneer nucleic-acid researcher Dr. Benjamin S. Frank in Dr. Frank’s No-Aging Diet: Eat and Grow Younger (34), individuals can look and feel five, ten, or even fifteen years younger. That is the little-known power of dietary nucleic acids for health.

Dr. Frank saw those results with his patients consuming dietary nucleic acids (from fish and yeast sources). The anti-aging effects were so evident, he wrote: “It shows on your face.” He saw it happen with nearly all his patients. Dr. Frank emphasizes that such changes in appearance aren’t just “skin-deep” and in fact aren’t even “cosmetic” at all (from a medical standpoint), but stem from deep-down improvements in health (6).

After years of experience with thousands of patients, Dr. Frank concluded that dietary nucleic acids could “revolutionize the appearance of most Americans, because most…are in poor health…aging faster than necessary” (Dr. Frank’s No-Aging Diet, 34). Dr. Frank cared about his patients and knew dietary nucleic acids could help them be healthier.

What Dr. Frank did not know about was chlorella, which is at least 10 times higher in dietary nucleic acids than nutritional yeast or seafoods. If he had known about chlorella, he would have advocated for its consumption to realize the benefits of its dietary nucleic acid content.

Because chlorella is a rich source of nucleic acids, you can expect the type of results reported by Dr. Frank regarding his patients. The benefits of chlorella add up over time—helping people looking and feeling younger—far longer than experienced by those consuming typical (SAD) diets.

In my own experience, I saw myself “growing younger” after consuming chlorella for about three weeks. My rejuvenation hasn’t stopped—I look and feel youthful for my age, and it’s nice having plenty of energy. I’m compelled to share my knowledge about chlorella so other people can benefit from its dietary nucleic acids and other healthy nutrients.

There is a powerful connection between our inner health and outer appearance. When we meet our body’s needs for nutrition and for the energy to carry out its tasks, we can experience glowing health. The dietary nucleic acids in chlorella can help everyone look and feel their very best.


• Heart Health. Chlorella’s nucleic acids help rejuvenate your entire body, including your heart. Chlorella also contains essential fatty acids (i.e., “good” fats), including omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid). These fatty acids combine with chlorella’s proven ability to lower cholesterol, as well as the rejuvenating and energizing effects of nucleic acids to support excellent cardiovascular health.

In addition, the strengthening and anti-inflammatory actions of polysaccharides, and chlorella’s ability to remove toxic heavy metals play significant roles in reducing the stiffness ness of vessel walls, thereby improving their resiliency and elasticity.

• Breathe Easier. Nucleic acids vastly improve cellular oxygenation and oxygen utilization in the body—enabling far more efficient use of oxygen, including the ability to function better with less. This is a truly remarkable benefit to anyone who wants improved breathing capacity, living in polluted environments or at high altitudes, and for aerobic exercise of any kind.

Studies show nucleic acids dramatically boost exercise performance via increased breathing capacity, greater stamina, and ability to perform physical tasks faster and longer.

Individuals with sufficient dietary nucleic acid intake are less “winded” while walking, running, hiking, swimming, climbing, kayaking, playing tennis, yoga, etc. Even people already in great shape will usually see noticeable differences. For example, gaining greater endurance and reserve capacity. The ability to go farther with less “huffing” or “puffing.”

• Mental Sharpness. The nucleic acids in chlorella greatly improve oxygen utilization, which can greatly improves your mental performance. The capacity of chlorella’s cell wall to help the body eliminate toxic metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium) also plays a role in increasing mental acuity.

• Blood Sugar Stabilization. Chlorella helps stabilize blood sugar levels by supporting and balancing the liver and pancreas. When these organs do their jobs effectively, blood sugar levels naturally become better balanced. In addition, chlorella can reduce cravings for carbohydrates and sweets.

• Liver Support. Chlorella rejuvenates and cleanses the liver (and other detoxification organs). Nucleic acids directly stimulate cellular repair in liver tissue while improved elimination functions reduce cholesterol and fats in the bloodstream. This helps the liver be more efficient and keep the body healthier.

• Intestinal Health. Supports growth of healthy intestinal flora (“friendly” bacteria) in the digestive tract, aids bowel elimination, and deodorizes.

•Alkalinizing Effects. Chlorella brings balance to body pH by creating alkaline conditions — counteracting the effects of acid-forming foods and substances. This helps create greater health.

• Feel Great. Chlorella’s benefits act synergistically. When all body systems repair and heal, they work better together. Health is more than the absence of disease. When all parts function optimally — in a natural, healthy way — the result is often feeling great due to good health.

Nature has blessed us with chlorella, a superfood with countless health benefits. That is why we include chlorella in Rejuvenate!™ superfoods.

chlorella drink

Consuming a daily green superfood drink with chlorella is a healthy habit.


The ancient Greek philosopher Hippocrates famously exhorted, “Let food be your medicine.” Yet individuals and society don’t always embrace this truth.

Low levels of nutrition offered by the so-called “Standard American Diet” (SAD) are implicated in the rise of degenerative diseases and other conditions of poor health. Ironically, our age is a time of great food abundance and great malnutrition. A time when food quantity often exceeds food quality.

Facing significant declines of nutritional values in modern foods (due to processing, refining, toxic additives, soil degradation, agricultural chemicals, etc.), as well as the nutrient-depletion in our bodies related to factors like high-speed/high stress lifestyles, poor food choices, and lack of education about nutrition, why should a nutritious superfood like chlorella go overlooked?

Times are changing. People increasingly want nutrition facts about healing foods and super nutrition offered by whole foods like chlorella.


Chlorella is often considered “nature’s perfect food” because there’s no single food like it. It offers a unique profile of beneficial nutrients, including:

  • Nucleic Acids, including RNA, DNA, and nucleic acid derivatives — a sort of “fountain of youth” providing energy for your cells.
  • Chlorella Growth Factor (GGF) — health-building nucleotide-peptide complex that boosts immunity and speeds healing.
  • Essential Fatty Acids (omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs) — an excellent source of heart-healthy omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid.
  • Richest Source of Chlorophyll of any plant, 4%–7% or greater. 10 times more chlorophyll than alfalfa. Chlorophyll is an amazing healing phytonutrient that powerfully heals, purifies, cleanses, and detoxifies.
  • High-Quality Plant Protein (62% or more) — vegetable protein that’s easy to digest and assimilate.
  • Antioxidants, Enzymes, and Phytonutrients, including naturally occurring beta-carotene and lutein.
  • Vitamins, including vitamins A, C, D, E, and K1; all major B vitamins, and vitamin B12.
  • Minerals and Trace Elements, including iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iodine, zinc, manganese, and others.
  • Polysaccharides — protecting your vascular system, strengthening connective tissues, and building immunity (by stimulating interferon production).
  • Fiber (11% insoluble) — promoting heart health, detoxification, easier elimination, and appetite control.

These are some of the nutrients chlorella provides. Let me tell you a little more about chlorella’s dietary nucleic acids because they are responsible for many of the benefits of chlorella.


While chlorella contains many valuable nutrients, one group of nutrients stands out as exceptional: its high content of nucleic acids. In particular, RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Nucleic acids are involved in many bodily processes, especially energy production and communication within cells (i.e., they enable cells to use energy effectively for greater health). In the cell nucleus, RNA carries out instructions coded in DNA—instructions containing information critical for cell structure and function—which are essential for the lives of our cells.

When our cells receive proper directions and energy to carry them out, they have the resources to help keep us youthful, or at least not age prematurely. Chlorella’s nucleic acids provide us basic materials for repairing and replacing our RNA and DNA, thereby giving us potentially greater energy, vitality, and longevity.

Our bodies naturally make nucleic acids. However, with increasing age we gradually lose our capacity for synthesizing them. This is where nucleic acids from foods can make a difference for health. As noted, pioneer RNA researcher Dr. Benjamin S. Frank discovered that dietary nucleic acids not only improve health, but also slow down and even reverse the aging process.

Many decades of research led Dr. Frank to conclude that nucleic acids are not only improve health, but they’re actually “essential nutrients.” In particular, he describes RNA as “the anti-aging factor.” His research laid the foundation for understanding the effects of all high-nucleic acid foods, including chlorella.

In his books, Dr. Frank predicts nucleic acids will be the “medicine” of the future, but says that everyone can benefit right now — by eating high-nucleic acid foods. In fact, his best-seller Dr. Frank’s No-Aging Diet is a guide for helping people learn about consuming foods high in nucleic acids for optimal health. Yet, he’s hardly alone in his enthusiasm for nucleic acids from foods.

Dr. Frank has plenty of company in his praise for dietary nucleic acids. In a classic, groundbreaking book titled Chlorella, Jewel of the Far East, natural healer Dr. Bernard Jensen focuses on the health benefits of chlorella and its nucleic acids.

Dr. Jensen states, “Eating foods high in nucleic acids provide the material for the repair and production of human nucleic acids…the breakdown of DNA and RNA in the cells [is]…one of the main factors in aging and in degenerative diseases” (83).

He spent his life traveling the world searching for secrets of health and longevity. He was impressed by the “mind blowing” effects of dietary nucleic acids on human health, especially the effects of chlorella.

Dr. Jensen marveled at chlorella’s nutritional characteristics. He understood then that it would take time to study and understand the mechanisms behind chlorella’s evident benefits. However, he was clear in stating that while science takes time unraveling chlorella’s mysteries, anyone can benefit from consuming it right now—without waiting for the day when modern science fully reveals how it makes us healthier.

He also states, “We know from studies, from experiments and the experiences of many people that chlorella protects the body and restores health, without undesirable side effects” (85).

Nutrition science already reveals the foods highest in nucleic acids. These foods include fish, organ meats, beans, brewer’s yeast, and most of all chlorella. Yet, foods and superfoods aren’t typically promoted for their high nucleic acid levels. Most doctors and nutritionists know little about the importance of dietary nucleic acids.

Yet, nothing prevents individuals from consuming high-nucleic acid foods right now, as Dr. Frank and Dr. Jensen advise.


Chlorella’s nucleic acids help you become healthier. Studies prove the remarkable powers of nucleic acids to heal, rejuvenate, rebuild, restore, improve quality of life, and even prolong life.

Nucleic acids are known to increase energy levels and cellular oxygenation, boost physical stamina and lung power, and augment overall health and well being. They also smooth skin, reduce wrinkles, increase lean muscle mass, lower cholesterol, support cardiovascular health, aid metabolism, stabilize blood sugar, and even help regulate body temperature (for example, they can increase body warmth for greater comfort in cold climates).


One essential fact you need to know about chlorella’s nucleic acids is that they dramatically increase energy. Nucleic acids boost energy levels in the body by significantly increasing production of the “high-energy” molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and thereby retard the aging process.

Our bodies use ATP in many ways. For example, cell repair, healing, metabolism, digestion, supporting the immune system, and other processes. This means chlorella is a total body healing food and a systemic healer that rejuvenates deeply from the cellular level on up, and from the inside out.

Our bodies know exactly how to use dietary nucleic acids to make energy to satisfy our needs. In this sense, RNA acts as a “smart” nutrient providing energy wherever we need it most, and thereby functions as an “adaptogen.” Precisely because dietary nucleic acids support metabolism and slow aging, many nutrition scientists consider chlorella among the top superfoods in the world.


Chlorella offers more than an incredibly high nucleic acid content. The 5% nucleic-acid rich fraction of chlorella contains a substance known as “Chlorella Growth Factor” or CGF.

First isolated by Japanese scientists in the mid-1950s, Chlorella Growth Factor is a nucleotide-peptide complex containing nucleic acids and nucleic-acid derivatives, like amino acids, peptides, nucleotides, nucleosides, polysaccharides, beta-glucans, and other beneficial substances. Most importantly, it’s natural, safe, and demonstrates potent healing powers.

CGF is best known for having powerful growth stimulating properties. In fact, in Japan it’s used to boost growth in children with growth disorders.

CGF doesn’t boost growth in adults, but instead enhances immune system response, repairs nerve tissues (e.g., especially helpful for brain and nerve disorders), and works powerfully to speed healing. Also, the body uses this growth factor to produce energy in support of metabolic processes and to revitalize cellular functioning.

Because CGF is a concentrated source of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), its constituents act synergistically to provide you with superb nutrition for optimal health.

CGF offers potent health benefits like immune support, rapid healing, regeneration, and rejuvenation. Thus, Chlorella Growth Factor is another reason why chlorella is one of most complete superfoods on the planet.


Chlorella’s energizing and healing powers are remarkable. Its nucleic acids and Chlorella Growth Factor support optimal health. Yet, chlorella also contains vast quantities of chlorophyll, the green phytonutrient found in all plants. As a superfood that gets its name from chlorophyll, chlorella’s chlorophyll content is extremely high—4% to 7%, or greater. That’s the highest chlorophyll content of any plant. Chlorophyll itself is a significant healing substance.


Chlorophyll has many proven benefits: it cleanses, deodorizes, disinfects, detoxifies, alkalinizes your body, and speeds healing (internally and externally). It has been said, “If you’re green inside, you’re clean inside.” And due to chlorophyll’s structural similarity to human blood cells, consuming it builds a high blood count.

Here’s a partial list of chlorophyll’s benefits:

• Detoxifies, deodorizes, cleanses, and purifies. Chlorophyll is nature’s greatest purifier.

• Removes heavy metals from the body, including mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic metals (see Mike Adams’s Superfoods for Optimum Health, 10)

Due to industrialization, polluted water, dental amalgams, and consumption of predatory fish (high in mercury), it is estimated that most Americans have relatively high levels of toxic metals in their bodies. Chlorophyll helps reduce the burden of metals on the body.

• Removes pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and industrial chemicals.

• Aids liver function—via purification and detoxification, and supports other elimination functions in the body! (see Mike Adam’s Superfoods for Optimum Health, 10)

• Can reduce pain in certain instances (see Dr. Bernard Jensen’s The Healing Power of Chlorophyll, 105.)

• Builds a high blood count and  thereby can improve anemia due to chlorophyll’s structural similarity to human blood cells. (See Dr. Bernard Jensen’s The Healing Power of Chlorophyll, 105).

Chlorophyll is a powerful healer. People take everything from parsley extracts to wheatgrass juice to obtain its benefits. But chlorella contains far more chlorophyll than these sources and provides many other health-building elements–as discussed above—a winning combination for good health.


Few foods offer as many benefits for health as chlorella. Providing dietary nucleic acids, Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF), chlorophyll, protein, vitamins, minerals, essential fats (omega-3 and omega-6), antioxidants, polysaccharides, phytonutrients, and fiber, chlorella is an ideal ingredient to include in superfood formulas. Thus, chlorella provides users with high levels dietary nucleic acids and many other healthful nutrients that work synergistically to support optimal health.


Hank Liers, PhD formulated Rejuvenate! superfoods specifically to provide high levels of dietary nucleic acids. Chlorella is one of several significant sources of the dietary nucleic acids in HPDI’s Rejuvenate! Original and Rejuvenate PLUS. Note: Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs contains no chlorella (or any greens), but still provides therapeutic levels of nucleic acids.

Chlorella is a champion ingredient among high-RNA ingredients. Individuals interested in optimal health should consider chlorella and superfoods high in chlorella as allies providing the highest levels of dietary nucleic acids and nutrients supporting their use in the body.



Fred Liers PhD riboseAvoiding excess dietary sugars is one of the healthiest things. But there is one sugar that really is good for you. That sugar is D-ribose.

In fact, D-ribose is so healthy for you, it may be the one sugar you won’t want to live without. A little background to this amazing sugar.

D-ribose is a 5-carbon monosaccharide occurring naturally in living cells. D-ribose importantly forms the carbohydrate parts of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). That means d-ribose is the sugar essential for the biological function of all living creatures, including humans.

Supplemental D-ribose is associated with many benefits. These benefits include greater energy, less fatigue, and faster muscle recovery. These benefits relate to the capacities of D-ribose as a total body energizer because it boosts energy production (as ATP) in the body.

For individuals suffering low energy levels associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), low energy levels, and other problems related to low energy (ATP) production, D-ribose can mean a significantly higher level of energy. In cases of extremely low energy, it can mean the capacity to function more normally.

ribose energy woman power health

D-ribose energizes every cell in our bodies.

Athletes and bodybuilders were among the earliest to recognize D-ribose for purposes of improving performance and recovery times. D-Ribose also exerts anti-anxiety, stress reduction, and potential anti-depressant properties. There is additional evidence suggesting that supraphysiological amounts of ribose may have cardioprotective effects, especially for the ischemic heart.

Supplemental D-ribose usually comes in the form of a sweet, crystalline, water-soluble powder. It is also available in capsules or tablets, including chewable tablets.

Humans synthesize d-ribose from foods, including glucose and various dietary sugars. But there are benefits to supplemental D-ribose. One of the major reasons is the important role of D-ribose in the production of energy (ATP) in human cells.













ribose sugar natural heart energy ATP RNA

D-ribose is heart healthy unlike most dietary sugars (e.g., sucrose).


The body uses D-ribose to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  ATP provides energy for all bodily movements and every chemical reaction in cells. ATP is the source of all energy in the body and it’s constantly broken down and recreated due to the processes of life.

The adenine portion of ATP consists of one molecule of adenine and ribose (i.e., five-carbon sugar). The triphosphate portion of ATP consists of three phosphate molecules. When a phosphate breaks off from ATP, then energy is released. The compound then becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which consists of adenosine and two phosphate molecules. When another phosphate molecule breaks off, it becomes adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

It is well established that ratios of ATP, ADP, and AMP are essential for regulating energy in cells. Under extreme physiological stress (e.g., high-intensity exercise), our cells cannot recreate ATP rapidly enough to supply cells with required energy. Concentrations of ADP and AMP rise causing a reduction in cellular energy. When the body’s rate of ATP use continues exceeding the rate at which it can be generated, cells “lose” nucleotides in order to restore the ratio between ATP, ADP, and AMP.

During anaerobic metabolism, AMP levels can rise within cells, thereby disturbing the ratios of ATP to ADP and AMP. The body can reduce AMP concentrations by degrading AMP to simpler end products resulting in a significant decrease in the adenine nucleotide pool. Under extreme conditions (e.g., prolonged high-intensity exercise or the diminished blood flow to tissues witnessed in ischemia), the adenine nucleotide pool may decrease by 30–50%. These effects can significantly compromise physical performance.

Here is where D-ribose supplementation works to support energy production. Supplemental D-ribose allows the body to bypass relatively slow conversion steps required for recreating the adenosine nucleotide providing critical material for ATP production. That is, D-ribose can increase the speed of nucleotide replacement. This has implications not only for sports performance, but also for general health. D-ribose is especially useful in situations where greater energy may be required, as in low energy, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, or combating the effects of aging.


One of the most important aspects of D-ribose for health relates to the fact that it is the rate-limiting compound that regulates the activity of the purine nucleotide pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. As such, ribose plays a central role not only in the synthesis of ATP, but also of coenzyme-A, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), DNA, RNA, and other important cellular constituents.

In fact, D-ribose is the only known compound the body can use for performing this critical metabolic function. Specifically, ribose administration bypasses the slow and rate-limited pentose phosphate pathway to stimulate adenine nucleotide synthesis and salvage in vivo. In addition, it has been shown that de novo adenine nucleotide synthesis in skeletal muscle is rate limited by the availability of ribose.

Specifically, human muscle cells (e.g., heart and skeletal muscle cells) do not rapidly replace lost nucleotides because of the lack of two rate-limiting enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway metabolizing glucose to ribose-5-phosphate. Ribose itself forms 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, a rate-limiting compound in nucleotide synthesis. As noted, supplemental D-ribose allow the body to bypass the rate-limited steps of the pentose phosphate pathway, thereby accelerating nucleotide synthesis (and salvage).


It should not take a genius to figure out that when energy production is optimized, overall health will improve. Yet, the same principle also applies in reverse. That is, there are many instances in which low energy levels can fuel lower energy levels. For example, when illness, stressors, or other factors deplete large amounts of the body’s supply of energy, they can gradually (or not so gradually) lessen the body’s capacity to produce more by overtaxing the energy production system.

This cascade of reduced energy production can become a vicious cycle in which there are few reserves left to support the body’s need for greater energy. D-Ribose is one of the only nutrients that can reverse the downward spiral in ATP production when demands exceed supply. By feeding the body’s own system for producing energy, and thereby supplying the raw material required to produce it, supplemental D-ribose can helps break the cycle of low energy levels.

fatigue ribose natural sugar energy atp cells

Chronic low energy? D-ribose is required for creating energy for all biological functions.


To recap the importance of supplemental D-ribose: D-ribose increases the rate at which ATP is generated. This improves exercise performance and allows for faster muscle growth. All this is possible because supplemental ribose helps the body bypass the conversion steps needed to create or re-create adenosine nucleotides.

Because replacing adenine nucleotides normally requires a certain amount of time, providing the body with D-ribose supplementally via diet can reduce rates of healing and repair in muscle cells. That is, supplemental D-ribose can increase the speed at which adenosine nucleotides are replaced by providing raw material for the creation of more ATP. That is how D-ribose improves athletic performance and supports optimal energy production, as well as optimal muscle health.

The significance of the science behind ATP production is that almost everyone can benefit from supplemental D-ribose. Whether you are an athlete requiring rapid repletion of energy, a person suffering from low energy levels or chronic fatigue, or anyone who wishes to improve energy production supporting optimal health.

ribose energizes beautiful athletic girl with colorful balloons jumping on the beach

Fatigued to fantastic: a plentiful supply of D-ribose helps ensure an abundance of energy.


We at HPDI have focused our efforts on formulating the most effective nutritional supplements and superfoods. When Dr. Hank Liers formulated our original high-RNA Rejuvenate! superfood, he put D-ribose into it. In fact, all of our Rejuvenate! superfoods provide significant amounts of D-ribose.

Rejuvenate! (original greens) provides 1,500 mg D-ribose per serving (one small scoop). Rejuvenate! PLUS provides 1,800 mg per serving (two scoops). Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs provides 2,000 mg per serving (two scoops).

ribose energy dietary nucleic acids rejuvenate superfoods

All Rejuvenate! superfoods provide high levels of D-Ribose.

A major reason HPDI includes D-ribose in its superfoods–and perhaps the most obvious one–is simply that we formulate unique, high-RNA superfoods to support optimal energy production in the body. D-ribose supports that goal by various means.

D-ribose is the rate-limiting sugar for the uptake and assimilation of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, nucleotides, and nucleosides). This is because D-ribose is actually the sugar backbone of these nutrients. As such, the body requires D-ribose in order to utilize and create (or recreate) dietary nucleic acids.

For example, nucleotides are the molecular building blocks of DNA and RNA. They are chemical compounds consisting of a heterocyclic base, a 5-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and at least one phosphate group. They are the monomers of nucleic acids, and 3 or more can bond together to form a nucleic acid.

Nucleosides are glycosylamines consisting of a base (or nucleobase) to a ribose (or deoxyribose) ring. Some nucleosides are cytidine, adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. When nucleosides are phosphorylated in cells, they produce nucleotides (see above).

Thus, D-ribose plays important roles as an essential part of nucleic acids, nucleotides, and nucleosides; in the production of energy (as ATP); and the synthesis and salvage of nucleotides in the body.

Rejuvenate! superfoods are formulated to provide high levels of nucleic acids. D-ribose helps the body optimize its use of nucleic acids and their constituent components. Having D-ribose in our superfoods not only supports energy production directly, but also allows maximum use of the dietary RNA they are formulated to provide.

Rejuvenate! superfoods provide nutrients that boost energy levels significantly and consistently for optimal health, healing, and wellness. The inclusion of D-ribose importantly supports the powerful nucleic acid nutrition these superfoods offer, as well as supplements the body’s intake and synthesis of D-ribose.

ribose energy rejuvenate plus (500g) RNA nucleic acids doctor hank liers original

REJUVENATE! PLUS provides 1,800 mg of D-ribose per serving.


D-Ribose of one of the most important natural sugars for life and health. It is one of the few nutrients that can boost energy levels naturally. When taken with other important biological nutrients, including dietary RNA, DNA, nucleotides, and nucleosides, D-ribose is truly a nutritional powerhouse that can support good health and the energy levels required to live life to its fullest. We believe the best way to obtain supplemental D-ribose is to consume Rejuvenate! superfoods.












Pentose-Phosphate Pathway: Elsevier’s Review of Biochemistry

From Fatigued to Fantastic (excerpt) by Jacob Teitelbaum, MD

D-Ribose technical information (Vista Chemicals)

Enhancing Cardiac Energy with Ribose (LEF)


The Use of D-Ribose in Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (J Altern Complement Med.)

D-Ribose Aids Advanced Ischemic Heart Failure Patients (Int J Cardiol.)

D-Ribose, a Metabolic Substrate for Congestive Heart Failure (Prog Cardiovasc Nurs.)

D-Ribose as a Supplement for Cardiac Energy Metabolism (J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther.)

Ribose Accelerates the Repletion of the ATP Pool During Recovery from Reversible Ischemia of the Rat Myocardium (J Mol Cell Cardiol.)

Significance of the 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate pool for cardiac purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis: studies with ribose, adenine, inosine, and orotic acid in rats (Cardiovasc Drugs Ther.)

Stimulation of Myocardial Adenine Nucleotide Biosynthesis by Pentoses and Pentitols (Pflugers Arch.)

The Role of Ribose on Oxidative Stress During Hypoxic Exercise (J. Med. Food)

D-Ribose Benefits Restless Legs Syndrome (J Altern Complement Med.)