Dr. Hank Liers, PhD vitamin B12 B-12 cobalamin methylcobalaminI previously wrote METHYLATION CYCLE, GENETICS, B VITAMINS in which I considered in-depth how the Methylation Cycle functions, how genetics affect metabolic pathways, and how B vitamins (including vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B2) are used in Methylation Cycle pathways. In today’s article, I take an in-depth view of what you need to know about vitamin B12, including the effects of not having sufficient amounts of Vitamin B12 in the body.

Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins. It is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin. It consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show physiological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a chemical ring structure.

Vitamin B12 (also called cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. It is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.

vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a chemical ring structure.


Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be one of the leading nutritional deficiencies in the world. An extensive 2004 study showed that deficiency is a major health concern in many parts of the world, including the North America, Central and South America, India, and certain areas in Africa. It is estimated that 40 percent of people may have low levels of vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 affects your mood, energy level, memory, nervous system, heart, skin, hair, digestion and more. It is a key nutrient regarding adrenal fatigue and multiple metabolic functions including enzyme production, DNA synthesis, and hormonal balance.

Because of vitamin B12’s extensive roles within the body, a vitamin deficiency can show up in many different symptoms, such as chronic fatigue, mood disorders such as depression, chronic stress, and low energy.


The only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria and archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat. They are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora, and continue to produce vitamin B12.

Products of animal origin such as beef (especially liver), chicken, pork, eggs, dairy, clams, and fish constitute the primary food source of vitamin B12. Older individuals and vegans are advised to use vitamin B12 fortified foods and supplements to meet their needs.

vitamin B12 salmon

Salmon is a good source of Vitamin B12

Commercially, Vitamin B12 is prepared by bacterial fermentation. Fermentation by a variety of microorganisms yields a mixture of methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin. Since multiple species of propionibacterium produce no exotoxins or endotoxins and have been granted GRAS status (generally regarded as safe) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, they are the preferred bacterial fermentation organisms for vitamin B12 production.

Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin are the forms of vitamin B12 used in the human body (called coenzyme forms). The form of cobalamin used in many some nutritional supplements and fortified foods, cyanocobalamin, is readily converted to 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin in the body.

Hydroxocobalamin is the direct precursor of methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. In mammals, cobalamin is a cofactor for only two enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and L-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase (MUT).

Unlike most other vitamins, B12 is stored in substantial amounts, mainly in the liver, until it is needed by the body. If a person stops consuming the vitamin, the body’s stores of this vitamin usually take about 3 to 5 years to exhaust. Vitamin B12 is primarily stored in the liver as 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, but is easily converted to methylcobalamin.


Vitamin B12, bound to protein in food, is released by the activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach. Intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 requires successively three different protein molecules: Haptocorrin, Intrinsic Factor and Transcobalamin II. If there are deficiencies in any of these factors absorption of Vitamin B12 can be seriously decreased.

When vitamin B12 is added to fortified foods and dietary supplements, it is already in free form and, thus, does not require the separation from food protein step. Free vitamin B12 then combines with intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein secreted by the stomach’s parietal cells, and the resulting complex undergoes absorption within the distal ileum by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Approximately 56% of a 1 mcg oral dose of vitamin B12 is absorbed, but absorption decreases drastically when the capacity of intrinsic factor is exceeded (at 1–2 mcg of vitamin B12).

Vitamin B12 – 5 mg methylcobalamin sublingual lozenge

Vitamin B12 – 5 mg Methylcobalamin sublingual lozenge.


Vitamin B12 deficiency can be difficult to detect, especially since the symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency can be similar to many common symptoms, such as feeling tired or unfocused, experienced by people for a variety of reasons.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is commonly associated with chronic stomach inflammation, which may contribute to an autoimmune vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome called pernicious anemia and to a food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. Poor absorption of vitamin may be related to coeliac disease. Impairment of vitamin B12 absorption can cause megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorders in deficient subjects. In some cases, permanent damage can be caused to the body when B12 amounts are deficient.

It is noteworthy that normal function of the digestive system required for food-bound vitamin B12 absorption is commonly impaired in individuals over 60 years of age, placing them at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

A diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on the measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels within the blood. However, studies show that about 50 percent of patients with diseases related to vitamin B12 deficiency have normal B12 levels when tested. This can cause individuals to ignore taking in adequate levels of vitamin B12 with potential serious consequences.


  • Vitamin B12 or cobalamin plays essential roles in folate metabolism and in the synthesis of the citric acid cycle intermediate, succinyl-CoA.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is commonly associated with chronic stomach inflammation, which may contribute to an autoimmune vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome called pernicious anemia and to a food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. Impairment of vitamin B12 absorption can cause megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorders in deficient subjects.
  • Normal function of the digestive system required for food-bound vitamin B12 absorption is commonly impaired in individuals over 60 years of age, placing them at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Vitamin B12 and folate are important for homocysteine metabolism. Elevated homocysteine levels in blood are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). B vitamin supplementation has been proven effective to control homocysteine levels.
  • The preservation of DNA integrity is dependent on folate and vitamin B12 availability. Poor vitamin B12 status has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in some, but not all, observational studies.
  • Low maternal vitamin B12 status has been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD), but it is not known whether vitamin B12 supplementation could help reduce the risk of NTD.
  • Vitamin B12 is essential for the preservation of the myelin sheath around neurons and for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. A severe vitamin B12 deficiency may damage nerves, causing tingling or loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, difficulty walking, confusion, and dementia.
  • While hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of cognitive impairment, it is not clear whether vitamin B12 deficiency contributes to the risk of dementia in the elderly. Although B-vitamin supplementation lowers homocysteine levels in older subjects, the long-term benefit is not yet known.
  • Both depression and osteoporosis have been linked to diminished vitamin B12 status and high homocysteine levels.
  • The long-term use of certain medications, such as inhibitors of stomach acid secretion, can adversely affect vitamin B12 absorption.
  • Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.


1. Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase. Methionine synthase (MS) catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Methionine along with ATP is required for the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a universal methyl donor for almost 100 different substrates, including DNA, RNA, hormones, proteins, and lipids.
2. Vitamin B12 as 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin functions as a cofactor along with L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) to convert L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA in the degradation of propionate, an essential biochemical reaction in fat and protein metabolism. Succinyl-CoA is also required for hemoglobin synthesis.
Metabolic Pathway


3. Vitamin B12, bound to protein in food, is released by the activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach. When synthetic vitamin B12 is added to fortified foods and dietary supplements, it is already in free form and, thus, does not require this separation step. Free vitamin B12 then combines with intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein secreted by the stomach’s parietal cells, and the resulting complex undergoes absorption within the distal ileum by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Approximately 56% of a 1 mcg oral dose of vitamin B12 is absorbed, but absorption decreases drastically when the capacity of intrinsic factor is exceeded (at 1–2 mcg of vitamin B12).

4. Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric mucosa and results in gastric atrophy. This leads to the destruction of parietal cells, achlorhydria, and failure to produce intrinsic factor, resulting in vitamin B12 malabsorption. If pernicious anemia is left untreated, it causes vitamin B12 deficiency, leading to megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders, even in the presence of adequate dietary intake of vitamin B12.

5. Vitamin B12 status is typically assessed via serum or plasma vitamin B12 levels. Values below approximately 170–250 pg/mL (120–180 picomol/L) for adults indicate a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, evidence suggests that serum vitamin B12 concentrations might not accurately reflect intracellular concentrations. An elevated serum homocysteine level (values >13 micromol/L) might also suggest a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, this indicator has poor specificity because it is influenced by other factors, such as low vitamin B6 or folate levels. Elevated methylmalonic acid levels (values >0.4 micromol/L) might be a more reliable indicator of vitamin B12 status because they indicate a metabolic change that is highly specific to vitamin B12 deficiency.

6. Vitamin B12 deficiency is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Neurological changes, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur . Additional symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include difficulty maintaining balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. The neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur without anemia, so early diagnosis and intervention is important to avoid irreversible damage. During infancy, signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency include failure to thrive, movement disorders, developmental delays, and megaloblastic anemia. Many of these symptoms are general and can result from a variety of medical conditions other than vitamin B12 deficiency.

7. Typically, vitamin B12 deficiency is treated with vitamin B12 injections, since this method bypasses potential barriers to absorption. However, high doses of oral vitamin B12 can also be effective. The authors of a review of randomized controlled trials comparing oral with intramuscular vitamin B12 concluded that 2,000 mcg (I like 5,000 mcg) of oral vitamin B12 daily, followed by a decreased daily dose of 1,000 mcg and then 1,000 mcg weekly and finally, monthly might be as effective as intramuscular administration. Overall, an individual patient’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 is the most important factor in determining whether vitamin B12 should be administered orally or via injection. In most countries, the practice of using intramuscular vitamin B12 to treat vitamin B12 deficiency has remained unchanged.

8. Large amounts of folate can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency without correcting the neurological damage that also occurs. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B12 deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage can occur if vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated. For these reasons, folate intake from fortified food and supplements should not exceed 1,000 mcg daily in healthy adults.

Groups at Risk of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include vitamin B12 malabsorption from food, pernicious anemia, postsurgical malabsorption, and dietary deficiency. However, in many cases, the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is unknown. The following groups are among those most likely to be vitamin B12 deficient.

Older adults: Atrophic gastritis, a condition affecting 10%–30% of older adults, decreases secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, resulting in decreased absorption of vitamin B12. Decreased hydrochloric acid levels might also increase the growth of normal intestinal bacteria that use vitamin B12, further reducing the amount of vitamin B12 available to the bodY.

Individuals with atrophic gastritis are unable to absorb the vitamin B12 that is naturally present in food. Most, however, can absorb the synthetic vitamin B12 added to fortified foods and dietary supplements. As a result, the IOM recommends that adults older than 50 years obtain most of their vitamin B12 from vitamin supplements or fortified foods. However, some elderly patients with atrophic gastritis require doses much higher than the RDA to avoid subclinical deficiency.

Individuals with pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia, a condition that affects 1%–2% of older adults, is characterized by a lack of intrinsic factor. Individuals with pernicious anemia cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal tract. Pernicious anemia is usually treated with intramuscular vitamin B12. However, approximately 1% of oral vitamin B12 can be absorbed passively in the absence of intrinsic factor, suggesting that high oral doses of vitamin B12 might also be an effective treatment.

Individuals with gastrointestinal disorders: Individuals with stomach and small intestine disorders, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, may be unable to absorb enough vitamin B12 from food to maintain healthy body stores. Subtly reduced cognitive function resulting from early vitamin B12 deficiency might be the only initial symptom of these intestinal disorders, followed by megaloblastic anemia and dementia.

Individuals who have had gastrointestinal surgery: Surgical procedures in the gastrointestinal tract, such as weight loss surgery or surgery to remove all or part of the stomach, often result in a loss of cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. This reduces the amount of vitamin B12, particularly food-bound vitamin B12, that the body releases and absorbs. Surgical removal of the distal ileum also can result in the inability to absorb vitamin B12. Individuals undergoing these surgical procedures should be monitored preoperatively and postoperatively for several nutrient deficiencies, including vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vegetarians: Strict vegetarians and vegans are at greater risk than lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians of developing vitamin B12 deficiency because natural food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to animal foods. Fortified breakfast cereals and fortified nutritional yeasts are some of the only sources of vitamin B12 from plants and can be used as dietary sources of vitamin B12 for strict vegetarians and vegans. Fortified foods vary in formulation, so it is important to read the Nutrition Facts labels on food products to determine the types and amounts of added nutrients they contain.

Pregnant and lactating women who follow strict vegetarian diets and their infants: Vitamin B12 crosses the placenta during pregnancy and is present in breast milk. Exclusively breastfed infants of women who consume no animal products may have very limited reserves of vitamin B12 and can develop vitamin B12 deficiency within months of birth. Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency in infants can result in severe and permanent neurological damage.

The American Dietetic Association recommends supplemental vitamin B12 for vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians during both pregnancy and lactation to ensure that enough vitamin B12 is transferred to the fetus and infant. Pregnant and lactating women who follow strict vegetarian or vegan diets should consult with a pediatrician regarding vitamin B12 supplements for their infants and children.

Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin B12

The IOM did not establish a UL for vitamin B12 because of its low potential for toxicity. In Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline, the IOM states that “no adverse effects have been associated with excess vitamin B12 intake from food and supplements in healthy individuals”.

Findings from intervention trials support these conclusions. In the NORVIT and HOPE 2 trials, vitamin B12 supplementation (in combination with folic acid and vitamin B6) did not cause any serious adverse events when administered at doses of 0.4 mg for 40 months (NORVIT trial) and 1.0 mg for 5 years (HOPE 2 trial).

Interactions with Medications

Vitamin B12 has the potential to interact with certain medications. In addition, several types of medications might adversely affect vitamin B12 levels. A few examples are provided below. Individuals taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their vitamin B12 status with their healthcare providers.

Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin®) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic. Limited evidence from case reports indicates that chloramphenicol can interfere with the red blood cell response to supplemental vitamin B12 in some patients.

Proton pump inhibitors: Proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole (Prilosec®) and lansoprazole (Prevacid®), are used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. These drugs can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption from food by slowing the release of gastric acid into the stomach. However, the evidence is conflicting on whether proton pump inhibitor use affects vitamin B12 status. As a precaution, healthcare providers should monitor vitamin B12 status in patients taking proton pump inhibitors for prolonged periods.

H2 receptor antagonists: Histamine H2 receptor antagonists, used to treat peptic ulcer disease, include cimetidine (Tagamet®), famotidine (Pepcid®), and ranitidine (Zantac®). These medications can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12 from food by slowing the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach. Although H2 receptor antagonists have the potential to cause vitamin B12 deficiency, no evidence indicates that they promote vitamin B12 deficiency, even after long-term use. Clinically significant effects may be more likely in patients with inadequate vitamin B12 stores, especially those using H2 receptor antagonists continuously for more than 2 years.

Metformin: Metformin, a hypoglycemic agent used to treat diabetes, might reduce the absorption of vitamin B12, possibly through alterations in intestinal mobility, increased bacterial overgrowth, or alterations in the calcium-dependent uptake by ileal cells of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex. Small studies and case reports suggest that 10%–30% of patients who take metformin have reduced vitamin B12 absorption. In a randomized, placebo controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin treatment for 4.3 years significantly decreased vitamin B12 levels by 19% and raised the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency by 7.2% compared with placebo. Some studies suggest that supplemental calcium might help improve the vitamin B12 malabsorption caused by metformin, but not all researchers agree.


FROM: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/71/2/514/4729184
Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to intake source in the Framingham Offspring Study

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 71, Issue 2, 1 February 2000, Pages 514–522, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.2.514


Background: Low vitamin B-12 status is prevalent among the elderly, but few studies have examined the association between vitamin B-12 status and intake.
Objective: We hypothesized that vitamin B-12 concentrations vary according to intake source.
Design: Plasma concentrations and dietary intakes were assessed cross-sectionally for 2999 subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 concentrations <148, 185, and 258 pmol/L was examined by age group (26–49, 50–64, and 65–83 y), supplement use, and the following food intake sources: fortified breakfast cereal, dairy products, and meat.
Results: Thirty-nine percent of subjects had plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations <258 pmol/L, 17% had concentrations <185 pmol/L, and 9% had concentrations <148 pmol/L, with little difference between age groups. Supplement users were significantly less likely than non-supplement-users to have concentrations <185 pmol/L (8% compared with 20%, respectively). Among non-supplement-users, there were significant differences between those who consumed fortified cereal >4 times/wk (12%) and those who consumed no fortified cereal (23%) and between those in the highest and those in the lowest tertile of dairy intake (13% compared with 24%, respectively), but no significant differences by meat tertile. Regression of plasma vitamin B-12 on log of intake, by source, yielded significant slopes for each contributor adjusted for the others. For the total group, b = 40.6 for vitamin B-12 from vitamin supplements. Among non-supplement-users, b = 56.4 for dairy products, 35.2 for cereal, and 16.7 for meat. Only the meat slope differed significantly from the others.
Conclusions: In contrast with previous reports, plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with vitamin B-12 intake. Use of supplements, fortified cereal, and milk appears to protect against lower concentrations. Further research is needed to investigate possible differences in bioavailability.





Fred Liers PhD rejuvenate original superfood lemonadeLooking for a natural energy boost? Or a super-power-up, pick-me-up drink? Look no further than Rejuvenate! Lemonade. Rejuvenate! Lemonade offers all the deliciousness of fresh lemonade with the energizing and health-boosting effects of Rejuvenate!™ (Original Greens), the first superfood formulated to provide high levels of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA).

In fact, Rejuvenate Lemonade is among the best—and tastiest—ways to take Rejuvenate! Original Greens. I make 12–32 ounces of Rejuvenate! Lemonade daily. It is especially refreshing in the summer, but it easy to make and drink year-round. Not only does it taste amazingly good, but delivers the all important therapeutic levels of dietary nucleic acids you need daily for good health.

All three Rejuvenate! superfoods offer major energizing effects by providing therapeutic levels of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA). Rejuvenate! superfoods are the only superfoods dedicated to supplying high levels of dietary nucleic acids. Yet, Rejuvenate!™ (Original Greens) is the most densely packed with dietary RNA, providing 340 mg per serving (one small scoop)!! A single container provides 42 servings—sufficient for six weeks of daily use.


Make Rejuvenate! Lemonade with fresh lemons or limes, maple syrup (or other natural sweeteners), purified water, cayenne pepper (optional), and Rejuvenate!™ superfood. If you don’t have fresh lemons or limes, substitute bottled lemon juice (like the Santa Cruz brand organic 100% lemon or 100% lime juice).


Fresh Lemons or Limes (1–2)
Purified Water (8–32 ounces)
Grade B Maple Syrup (1–2 tbsp)
Cayenne Pepper (1/4 tsp or pinch)
Rejuvenate!™ (Original Greens) (1–4 scoops)

Squeeze the lemons (using a citrus juicer or press). Aim to squeeze 2–4 tbsp juice. Mix lemon juice into your container of water. Add 1–2 tbsp maple syrup or to taste. You can also try using stevia, xylitol, or other natural sweeteners. Add a pinch of cayenne pepper (optional). Mix 1–4 scoops of Rejuvenate! (Original Greens) superfood. In hot weather, try adding a few ice cubes. Stir and enjoy!

Rejuvenate! Lemonade is excellent when modified to include small amounts of other juices (e.g., blueberry or pomegranate) of your choice, or other Rejuvenate! superfoods (Rejuvenate! Plus or Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs).

Rejuvenate!™ Original Greens is the most nutrient-dense, and darkest-green superfood in HPDI’s Rejuvenate! line.


Dietary nucleic acids offer significant benefits, including:

• Greater Energy (via increased ATP production in cells)
• Improved Endurance
• Greater Muscle Mass and Functional Strength
• Cardiovascular Benefits
• Increased Tissue Oxygenation & Anti-Anoxic Effects (easier breathing)
• Lower cholesterol levels
• Smoother Skin & More Youthful Appearance (Anti-Aging Effect)
• Detoxification Support
• Temperature tolerance (to cold/heat)
• Quality of Life and Longevity Effects
• Greater Subjective Well-Being

(Sources: Nucleic Acid Nutrition & Therapy, and Chlorella: Gem of the Orient)


• Chlorella
• Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF)
• Nutritional Yeast
• Yeast RNA Extract

Other nutrients included known to support the uptake, assimilation, and use of dietary nucleic acids:

• D-Ribose
• Calcium Folinate
• Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12)

These nutrients ensure the body effectively utilizes the dietary nucleic acids in Rejuvenate! Original Greens. They also help this unique high-RNA superfood support your health beyond what might be expected of the collection of individual nutrients—a process known as “synergy” that leverages the benefits of all ingredients in Original Greens into something more than the sum of its parts.


Rejuvenate!™ Original Greens was the first in the Rejuvenate! line of superfoods. More than the others, it is nutrient-dense in terms providing the richest amount of dietary nucleic acids per unit weight. It also remains the most cost-effective per serving.

While it does not contain a built-in multivitamin (like Rejuvenate! PLUS and Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs) or a comprehensive herbal sub-formula (like Berries & Herbs), Rejuvenate!™ Original Greens remains most popular among “hard core” nutrition customers and healthy food purists, as well as individuals seeking the most rapid detoxification and cleansing effects. Does this sounds like you or your clients? Then start with “Original Greens,” make healthy RNA-rich lemonade, and enjoy all the tasty benefits!

The combination of fresh lemonade and Rejuvenate! Original Greens will help hydrate, cleanse, purify, and detox…and simply is a tasty and energy-boosting, power-up drink like no other!

Lemonade made with Rejuvenate! Original Greens packs a potent, high-RNA punch.


Rejuvenate! — The Original High-RNA Superfood

Rejuvenate! Superfoods Comparison

Rejuvenate! (Original Greens)


High-RNA Rejuvenate! Superfood

“9 Things to Know About Rejuvenate!™ Superfoods”



Super-Tasty Morning Nutritional Drinks


Chlorella: Jewel of Far East, Bernard Jensen, PhD.

Chlorella: Gem of the Orient: The Dynamic Food Discovery for Health and Healing, Bernard Jensen, PhD

Dr. Frank’s No-Aging Diet, Dr. Benjamin Frank.

Nucleic Acid Nutrition & Therapy, Benjamin S. Frank, MD

Nucleic Acid Therapy in Aging and Degenerative Disease: A Metabolic Approach with DNA, RNA, and Related Metabolites, Benjamin S. Frank (3rd ed)

A New Approach to Degenerative Disease and Aging: Effects of RNA, DNA with Other Metabolites. Dr. Benjamin S. Frank

Dr. Frank’s No-Aging Diet Cookbook, Barbara Friedlander Meyer, Marilyn Peterson, and Benjamin S. Frank, MD

Food Healing for Man (vol. 1), Bernard Jensen, PhD



Dr Hank Liers PhD science behind MegahydrateI recently became aware of the health benefits of molecular hydrogen/hydrogen. We subsequently have written numerous blog articles on the subject (see resources section below), and elected to carry and endorse several products, including Active H2 and Megahydrate™. As a scientist, I am particularly impressed with the science behind Megahydrate, as well as the in-depth research studies carried out showing how it was developed and its health benefits.

For economic reasons, it is rare for a particular nutritional supplement to have in-depth scientific studies and clinical trials supporting its use. In this article, I will present some of the most relevant scientific information regarding Megahydrate.

 science behind Megahydrate

In a previous article “Water, Hydration, and Crystal Energy®” I discuss in-depth the science behind Dr. Patrick Flanagan’s use of nanometer-sized silica colloids to enable greater hydration of the body, enhanced absorption of nutritional ingredients into cells, and improved cellular detoxification.

In this article I will discuss the science and benefits of embedding hydrogen anions (hydride or H-) into these same nanometer-sized silica colloids that not only have all of the hydration benefits of Crystal Energy® but also exhibit potent antioxidant characteristics. The resulting substance is named by Dr. Flanagan “silica hydride” and his product that incorporates it is known as Megahydrate™ (originally Microhydrin™). The science behind the development of Megahydrate is provided below.


The details of the materials development are provided in an article by Cory J. Stephenson and G. Patrick Flanagan titled “Synthesis of Novel Anionic Hydride Organosiloxane Presenting Biochemical Properties” published in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28 (2003) 1243–1250.

Synthesis of an anionic hydride from monomeric silsesquioxanes is described. The novel compound, dubbed “silica hydride” is the result of several newly synthesized compounds from an interstitially embedded hydride family. It is a hydride-based compound with H− ions interstitially embedded in a matrix of caged silica. This compound exhibits profoundly different characteristics than other known compounds in the hydride family. Unlike saline hydrides, the silica hydride demonstrates no overt or violent reaction with water or air. However, it is capable of generating aqueous reductive potential readings (ORP) of −750 mV for extended time periods. In vitro biological testing demonstrated no cytotoxicity induced by the compound while demonstrating efficacy as an antioxidant. In vivo studies of the compound have shown that it has a significant ability to reduce lactic acid build up in muscles by one-half after exercise. The synthesis of the silica hydride resulted in an approximately 16.8% w/w hydride content, as determined by density changes, proton NMR spectroscopy and ion beam analyses. Scanning and tunneling electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), forward recoil (FReS) ion beam analyses, in addition to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduction potential and 29Si CP-MAS solid state NMR were additionally used to characterize the compound.

Below relevant details from the article are provided to give insight into the science of the Megahydrate invention.

Introduction: The idea behind synthesis of the novel compound described in this article is based on the use of a monomer nanocomposite as a carrier in a bioencapsulated compound. The synthesis uses a silica and hydroxyl group terminated silsesquioxane monomer, trademarked Silica Microclusters®, that is interstitially imbedded with hydride anions as conceptually depicted in Fig. 1. The results from the characterization of this compound provide evidence to this claim, including DRIFTS FTIR and NMR data.

Figure 1 science behind Megahydrate

Figure 1. Conceptual diagram of Flanagan Microcluster structure. The tetrahedral coordination forms a three-dimensional framework by a series of Si–O–Si bonds, creating a silica cage.

With the immense potential for bioencapsulates and nanocomposite technologies, it would be very beneficial to create a hydride out of a compound that would involve the combinational reducing effects of a saline hydride compound and the beneficial attributes of the host compound, all without the reactivity of the saline hydrides. Synthesizing a biologically friendly hydride would have immense potential as an antioxidant and radical scavenger as discussed later in this paper.

It was discovered in the present work that if a hydride ionic plasma was placed under pressure, virtually any compound it came in contact with could then absorb its emitted ions. Since the 1920s, creating a hydride gas has been standard practice. One effective way is to add a current to a tungsten (W) lament in a hydrogen gas atmosphere. The lament separates hydrogen gas into a monovalent hydrogen gas while the photoelectric effect on the W lament donates electrons to the H gases forming a H− plasma. Langmuir, in 1927, while using the W lament hydride ion synthesis technique, discovered that moist air prevents hydride ions from recombining back into hydrogen gas.

Figure 2 science behind Megahydrate

Figure 2. The Concept of Silica Hydride. Conceptually the hydride embedded organosiliceous silsesquioxane, or silica hydride, is a monomeric silica-based cage with interstitially placed hydride anions. As a bioencapsulated compound, the silica acts as a colloidal carrier for the hydrogen anions in solution.

Details of Invention: The idea for this synthesis experiment was to then create a hydride plasma under a water vapor atmosphere and expose the plasma to an organosilicate compound, circumventing the problem of the hydrogen not having the catalysis or the electron availability to combine with the host substrate. Interestingly, Langmuir noted that the monoatomic ions produced by this process would become embedded in the glass walls of the tubing of his apparatus and that same tubing could later be induced to release the ions. The glass tubing used by Langmuir was a borosilicate glass, an amorphous siliceous compound. In the present study, an apparatus similar to what Langmuir used was constructed to create a plasma of H− ions. The H− atmosphere was applied to the pure Microcluster Silica powder under pressure and in the presence of a water vapor, creating a novel silsesquioxane bioencapsulated-hydride compound, dubbed: silica hydride.

Materials and methods: A 1.0 L sealed glass vessel was fabricated containing the items as depicted in Fig. 3. Two 5 cm × 0:6 cm diameter W rods were positioned transversely 2 mm apart in the top of the reaction vessel with two insulated leads connecting the W rods to a 20 A constant-current transformer (Lambda-EMI 102A-1KV, Neptune, NJ). Ten grams of MicroclusterJ silica was placed on the stage inside the vessel with 100 ml of distilled and deionized water added to the basin. A steady stream of hydrogen gas was bubbled through an aquarium stone in water and introduced to the reaction vessel, purging all of the air from the vessel and increasing pressure to 172 kPa at which time the vessel was sealed. A 500 V potential was applied to the W rods. At voltages ranging from 350 to 750 V, a constant arc could be maintained between the electrodes without melting. The potential was applied for 30 seconds at which time the current was shut off  and additional hydrogen was pumped into the vessel creating a captive plasma. The sample was allowed to sit in the plasma for 30 minutes at which time the silica sample was removed and weighed with an analytical balance.

Figure 3 science behind Megahydrate

Figure 3. Synthesis Apparatus. The representation of the apparatus used to synthesize the compound. A hydrogen gas generator (A) provides H2 gas that is sparged through a fllter stone in deionized, distilled water (B), where the hydrogen gas and water vapor are transported into a reaction vessel (C) with the substrate. Two tungsten electrodes (D) create a captive plasma H− gas via a constant current high-voltage power supply (E). Vessel evacuation, purge and sealing were performed using a mechanical valve (F). The resultant actions interstitially embed the hydride anions created by the plasma into the substrate.

Results: Determination of the mass of the anionic hydride organosiloxane sample showed an increase from 10.0 to 11.70 g upon exposure to the hydride plasma under pressure. The sample was allowed to sit at room temperature with desiccant in a glass vial for 3 weeks at open atmosphere at which time the proceeding analyses were performed.

An ion beam analysis was performed with the silica powder being pressed into a pellet (1.66 g/cm3) compared to a control standard. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was analyzed with 2 MeV He beam, while 3 MeV He beam was used in a forward-recoil spectrometry (FReS) measurement. RBS suggests that the powder contains elements O and Si. Including H- content by FReS, the powder relative percentage makeup becomes H (78.1%), O (15.6%) and Si (6.2%). Trace amounts of boron (B) and W (<25 ppm) were also observed. Original values from samples of non-reacted Microcluster silica comparatively illustrate an elemental makeup of H (22.4%), O (55.6%) and Si (21.9%). A 1H-NMR characterization was performed and showed a 16.8% hydride content.

Scanning electron microscopy analysis with a 40 KeV-JEOL 840II microscope illustrated small, ∼ 2 microns, spheres consisting of numerous smaller spheres. A 300 KeV-CM30 transmission electron microscope allowed the resolution to image very small, spherical compounds that were measured to be about 50 Angstroms. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer qualified an elemental analysis of the compound to contain Si and O.

The ORP and pH were recorded for 250 ml distilled and deionized water in a Pyrex beaker. 10.0 g/ml of the siliceous hydride was added to the beaker and allowed to stir for 15 min at which time addition ORP and pH readings were taken. The initial ORP and pH of the water averaged 341.33±2.5 mV and pH 7.12±0.06, respectively. The readings after 15 min were −436.21 ± 2.1 mV for the ORP and 9.13 ± 0.09 for the pH measurements.

The hydrogen pressure unbiased reducing potential, rH, was calculated. The use of rH gives a hydrogen proton-unbiased look at the absolute reducing potential of a compound, eliminating the effects of pH in the ORP measurement. The measured rH for the compound was 11.02 ± 0.04 indicating a highly reduced environment.

Discussion: The synthesis process appears to cluster the organosilicate subunits into hydrogen-bonded aggregates that further group into approximately 2 micron clusters as shown in Fig. 4A. Dissolution in water decreases the cluster size from 2 microns to the smaller subunits of about 500 nm, then into individual cages of about 50 A (Fig. 4B).

 Figure 4 science behind Megahydrate


This new organosilicate silsesquioxane compound, commonly named silica hydride, has been the subject of numerous tests involving reduction potential (ORP) and pH as well as being analyzed as an effective antioxidant. Adding a few mg to water will drop an ORP reading by −750 mV. A recent publication of a clinical study has illustrated the capability of this compound to significantly reduce lactic acid after exercise by 50%. Viability and cytotoxicity probes show that the silica hydride does not cause any decrease in intracellular esterase activity or otherwise induce a toxic cytoplasmic environment. There are a plethora of uses of a hydride-based compound such as silica hydride since it does not impose a direct negative effect to cellular viability and cytoplasmic health. Particular uses include nutritional supplementation as an antioxidant. The incredible reduction potential of silica hydride adds to the possible uses of this type of compound.

The compound does not react violently or visibly with H2O. However, it will reduce the ORP reading to −750 mV for a period of at least several weeks. Most antioxidant compounds are relatively large chemical species. Examples of this are vitamins A, K, C, ubiquinone and n-acetyl-l-cysteine. It is hypothesized that steric hindrances may affect the efficacy of antioxidants. The small size and reducing capacity of silica hydride, the silsesquioxane hydride compound, may lead to future development as an antioxidant.

Conclusion: The novel siliceous compound acts as a colloidal carrier for the very small hydride anions that are released in an aqueous solution. This nanosized colloidal bioencapsulated compound could be an incredibly effective radical scavenger and aid in the reduction of oxidative stress due to its minimal size and high reduction potential.

This novel compound presented in this paper has demonstrated promising in vitro and in vivo biochemical significance with uses including reducing agents, antioxidants and nutritional supplementation. The synthesis is simple and effcient with consistent results of about 17% w/w hydride content with respect to the starting compound. Biologically friendly compounds that incorporate health-beneficial minerals, such as silica, with the scavenging and reducing capabilities of a hydride provide for numerous possibilities of uses.


After inventing Megahydrate (formerly Microhydrin), Dr. Flanagan (and his associates) conducted studies on its efficacy for a range of benefits for human health. The material was then patented in 2003. Key elements of the patent are provided below and a link to the entire content is provided if you wish to read further details.

Methods of using silica hydride mineral
US 20030190374 A1


The exact health benefits of silica hydride minerals, traditionally found in glacial streams, have long been the subject of speculation. Geochemical analysis indicates that such colloidal silica hydrides in water possess a silica-water interface that provides a hydrated surface and adsorbs other elements or compounds such as potassium, iron, magnesium, lithium, calcium, and hydrogen. Dietary supplements with similar properties have been formulated. When the silica-water interface of such compounds is saturated with reduced hydrogen, the compounds take on an overall negative charge and act as a reducing agent or antioxidant when in solution. When consumed, hydride ions introduced into the body by the silica hydride supplement donate electrons to body fluids. With proper dosages, the benefits of consuming silica hydride include reduction of lactic acid build-up, increasing cellular hydration, reduction of free radical damage, enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, increasing antioxidant activity, and enhancing the properties of drinking water.


This invention relates to methods of using silica hydride minerals. More particularly, this invention relates to methods of using silica hydride minerals that have beneficial effects on lactic acid buildup during exercise, cellular hydration, free radical damage, mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, antioxidant activity, and the suitability of water for conversion into optimal cellular body fluids.

Amorphous silicate minerals, many of which are in the nanoparticle size range, were once common in natural water sources and abundant in glacial stream waters. Not only do the silica mineral particles bond water and other elements for transport; they also can be adsorbed with reduced hydrogen, which releases electrons, providing antioxidant or reducing potential to surrounding fluids.

In one region of West Pakistan the people are known to enjoy excellent health and amazing longevity. A team of cardiologists found the heart health of the people to be exceptionally good and evidence of the people’s delayed aging. The cardiologists attributed the good health and longevity in significant part to the abundance of colloidal silicate minerals in the glacial streams the people used for irrigation of food crops and drinking water.

Geochemical analysis indicates that colloidal silicate minerals display a variety of properties, including the formation of structured water around the silica-water interface, which provides a hydrated surface that adsorbs elements or compounds such as potassium, iron, magnesium, lithium, calcium, and hydrogen. FIG. 5 illustrates an example of the silica-water interface and the concentric structured water arrangement about the interface with the adsorption of elements within the layers.

Figure 5 science behind Megahydrate

Figure 5. An enlarged view of a hypothetical silica hydride particle showing the silica-water interface and other adsorbed elements.


From silicate analogs, it is possible to formulate dietary supplements that are similar to the colloidal silicate minerals found in glacial waters and retain the geo-physical properties inherent to these minerals. An example of such synthesized silicate analogs is a silica hydride formula sold under the trademark Microhydrin®. Substances possessing the characteristics and functions described in this application, such as Microhydrin®, have assumed many names.

For example, in addition to being called silica hydrides, such substances are known as amorphous silicate minerals, silicate particles, silicates, colloidal silicate minerals, silicate analogs, synthesized silicate analogs, functional silicate nanocolloids, dielectric interstitial hydrides, dietary silicate supplements, or dietary silicate antioxidants. Considering the many labels afforded this class of substances, the characteristics and functions of supplements must necessarily determine whether a particular supplement falls within the class.

Referring again to FIG. 5, the particle’s silica-water interface can be saturated with reduced hydrogen, or hydride (H-) ions, and takes on an overall negative charge. In such cases, the particle then acts as a reducing agent or antioxidant when in solution (standard reduction-oxidation potential, −550 mV). It is capable of providing literally trillions of hydride ions able to donate electrons into body fluids.

Electrons, which Albert Szent-Gyorgyi called the “fuel of life,” are abundantly available in inorganically grown raw vegetables, fruits, and grains, but are deficient in our modem diet of over-cooked, acidic, or highly oxidized foods, beverages, and drinking water. In silica hydride minerals, the structured water around the silica-water interface stabilizes electron transfer. Such specific silicate interactions could play a substantial role in many biological processes by enhancing salvation properties and ion and water transport and by providing free radical antioxidant protection.

Such electron deficiencies resulting from inadequate diet have a derogatory impact on specific biological processes such as lactic acid build-up, cellular hydration, damage from free radicals, mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, antioxidant activity, and suitability of drinking water for conversion into optional cellular body fluids. Therefore, a need exists for a method of counter balancing these electron deficiencies and, as a result, enhancing each of these biological phenomena.

The present invention identifies certain beneficial health effects of silica hydride minerals and the effective doses necessary to achieve desired results. With proper dosages, the benefits of using silica hydride minerals as a dietary supplement include: reduction of lactic acid buildup during and after exercise, increasing cellular hydration, reduction of free radical damage, enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, increasing antioxidant activity, and enhancing the suitability of water for conversion into optimal cellular body fluids.


1. A method of reducing lactic acid buildup during and after exercise comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
2. A method of increasing cellular hydration comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
3. A method of reducing free radical damage comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
4. A method of enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
5. A method of increasing antioxidant activity comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
6. A method of making water more suitable for conversion into optimal extracellular and intracellular body fluids comprising ingesting water mixed with an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.
7. A method of improving the characteristics of body fluids, such as saliva pH, saliva rH2, blood resistivity, urine resistivity, urine pH, urine rH2, and saliva resistivity comprising ingesting an effective dose of silica hydride mineral.


  • Contains Hydrating Silica Microclusters®
  • Extremely Powerful Antioxidant
  • Recycles other Key Antioxidants in the Body
  • Extremely Safe and Non-Toxic
  • Easily Accesses All Cells in the body
  • Increases Cellular ATP Production by up to a factor of 4 times
  • Readily Converts NAD+ to NADH
  • Reduces Pain & Inflammation
  • Exhibits Powerful Anti-Aging Properties
  • Protects and Repairs DNA
  • Neutralizes Harmful Toxins like Fluoride, Chlorine, etc.
  • Protects Against and Repairs Radiation Damage
  • Increases Absorption of other Supplements
  • Lowers surface tension of water you drink leading to improved detoxification
  • Removes Heavy Metals from the Body
  • Balances pH or Alkalizes the body
  • Increases Zeta Potential of Human Cells
  • Increases Cellular Hydration
  • Very Stable – Works Over Extensive Time Periods
  • Reduces Lactic Acid Buildup During Intense Workouts
  • Protects Telomeres by allowing cells to exceed the Hayflick limit by 4-5 times


Molecular Hydrogen Foundation (MHF)

Hydrogen for Optimal Health
by Fred Liers, PhD (from the HPDI blog)

Wonders of Molecular Hydrogen
by Fred Liers, PhD (from the HPDI blog)

Molecular Hydrogen (H2) at the Forefront of Health Research
by Hank Liers, PhD (from the HPDI blog)

ACTIVE H2 (tablet)

H2BEV (bottle)

MegaHydrate™ (capsule)

Contact Us:

You can reach HPDI by calling 1-800-228-4265, email support(at)IntegratedHealth.com, or visit the retail website: www.IntegratedHealth.com

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hydration water crystal energy

Dr Hank Liers PhD hydration crystal energyIn this article, my goal is to provide a more in-depth understanding of the importance of water and hydration to human health. In my recent research on these subjects, it became clear that our common understanding of water is inadequate to provide us with the knowledge of how we may significantly improve our health using water in ways that can vastly improve the hydration and health of our tissues and cells.

To accomplish my goal, it is important to gain a better understanding of the fourth state of water and how the water in our bodies are primarily in this state. A relatively short video by Dr. Gerald Pollack provides significant illumination on this subject. His book The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor is recommended for those wishing to study in greater depth on this topic. 

The fact is that most of the water in the human body exists in this fourth or “structured” state. Furthermore, Dr. Pollack points out that water surrounding colloidal particles such as silica colloids is also in this structured state. Dr. Patrick Flanagan has applied this understanding along with a method of producing nanometer sized silica colloids to enable greater hydration of the body, enhanced absorption of nutritional ingredients into cells, and improved cellular detoxification. Dr. Flanagan has incorporated these elements into his Crystal Energy® product.

To provide quantification of the benefits of Crystal Energy, I have provided a somewhat simplified version of an article titled: Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Diffusion Kinetics and Surface Tension Differentiation by a Colloidal Silicate Minerals by Cory J. Stephanson, PhD and G. Patrick Flanagan, MD, PhD. For those wishing a more complete understanding of hydration and Crystal Energy, please read their full article.


Water (H2O) has a profound effect on our lives. The surface of the earth is 75% covered by water. The human body is about 67% water by weight and because of its low molecular weight 99% of the molecules in the human body are H2O. According to chemistry books there are three states of water solid (ice), liquid, and gas (vapor).

hydration water states

However, deeper studies of water in more recent years have revealed a fourth state of water called by various names such as exclusion zone (EZ) water, structured water, fourth phase of water, and crystalline water. One of the primary researchers of water is Dr. Gerald Pollack from the University of Washington. Dr. Pollack’s TED talk included below (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-T7tCMUDXU) gives us a broad view of the properties of the fourth state of water. It is highly recommended that you view this video as the facts revealed are not commonly known, but are profoundly important in our lives!


The issues of hydration of the human body are highly important. With regards to physiological and biological implications, significance and impact, no nutritional substance is equal to or greater than the importance of water. Water maintains multifaceted uses biologically as a solvent, catalyst, and carrier for other reactions and compounds. The interaction of water and biological fluids is a profound topic that bears significant nutritional consideration. Changes in physical rheology of water can have a profound effect on the amount of materials that water can carry to and from the interior of cells.

With aging, the body’s mechanisms of water balance are disturbed, increasing the risk of dehydration (and loss of hydration) among the elderly. Dehydration is indeed the most common fluid disorder among older persons, and it can have considerable clinical impact. It is estimated that between the ages of 30 and 70 years old the body loses about 15% of its capacity to retain water.

Reasons for the loss of capacity to retain water include: 1) The elderly often experience reduced thirst sensation which leads to decreased fluid consumption, especially following water deprivation, 2) As a consequence of aging, renal water conservation is impaired. Aged kidneys are less able to concentrate urine, and thereby to retain water during water deprivation, and 3) Aging is associated with limitations such as reduced swallowing capacity, reduced mobility, or comprehension and communication disorders, which can lead to insufficient fluid intake, 4) Disease-related factors, such as fever, diabetes, or incontinence can increase water losses, and 5) Dehydration may also be caused by environmental factors (warm temperature, inadequate knowledge or the lack of time of care workers in institutions contributing to inadequate fluid intake) or iatrogenic factors (medications including laxatives, diuretics or angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors, and medical procedures such as those requiring fasting).


The great majority of people do not recognize the absolutely crucial value of drinking the right kind of water for purposes of hydration. When doctors say, “Drink plenty of water or you will become dehydrated,” they are talking about the water around your cells, the intercellular water. However, here we’re talking about cellular hydration, the water inside the cells themselves.

Research in the field of cellular hydration has shown that when the cell swells up, it triggers an anabolic mechanism in the body, which is a healing mechanism. It is accompanied by positive nitrogen balance, protein synthesis, and growth hormone release, equivalent to useful levels even in older people. Cellular hydration also results in a reduction of cell acidity, reduced autoimmune response, increased fat burning, DNA repair, and increased resistance to viruses.

Now when the cells become dehydrated, it triggers a catabolic state accompanied by muscle wasting, cell hypoxia (oxygen starvation), DNA damage, and accelerated aging. As a result the cell becomes more sensitive to free radicals and more susceptible to viruses and autoimmune diseases. Virtually all symptoms of aging are the result of cellular dehydration accompanied by free radical damage. As such, proper hydration is essential for improved health.


Surface tension is an important indicator of the rheology or flow characteristics of water through a living system and across cell membranes. When a drop of liquid is placed on a solid or another secondary liquid, the first liquid either spreads to form a thin, more or less uniform film or remains as a discrete drop. The degree of interaction between the drop and the film is known as wetting. The former behavior is generally described as complete wetting, and the latter as incomplete or partial wetting of the surface.

The external measure of the degree of wetting is the contact angle, i.e., the angle formed between planes tangent to the surfaces of the solid and the liquid at the wetted perimeter. A zero contact angle is the condition for complete wetting of a solid by a liquid (e.g., water on clean glass). This concept is exceptionally important in the discussion of the nutritional aspects of a liquid. To fully discuss the phenomena and details of liquid interaction, it is important to understand the concepts of three terms: surface tension, wetting tension, and wetting angle.

Surface tension is the force that exists between a liquid and the atmosphere it is in. For example, in atmospheric air, a drop of water will bead up on some solid surfaces. It is the surface tension existing between the water and the air that allows this to occur. The drop of water can spread out on another solid surface if the new surface has molecular forces (surface energy) high enough to overcome the water/air surface tension and draw the water flat onto it.

Wetting tension is the maximum liquid surface tension that will spread, rather than bead up, on the film surface. It is a measurable property that estimates a film’s surface energy. Wetting tension is determined by applying different test solutions of increasing surface tensions until one is found that just spreads (wets) the film surface. Units are dynes/cm.

Contact or wetting angle (the angle θ shown in the diagram below) is a measurement of the behavior of pure water in contact with the film surface. The surface energy of the film controls whether the droplet tends to stand up or flatten out. This is quantified by measuring the contact angle of the droplet with the surface. A higher energy film will cause the droplet to be flatter and closer to the surface, which results in a smaller contact angle value.


hydration surface tension water

Ordinary water has a high surface tension, as well as a high wetting angle, which means it has a difficult time wetting the cells within the body. In the body our cell membranes contain a significant amount of phospholipids (fats), which have low surface tension of about 45 dynes/cm. Cells require a surface tension of about the same range for water to wet the cells, thus passing through the cell wall carrying nutrients etc. This concept is the same relationship as the idea that oil and water do not mix. Normal tap water has a surface tension of 73 dynes/cm which is able to suspend the cells in the body, but is not in intimate contact with the surface of the cell, passes through the body, and is not fully utilized by the cells. Higher surface tension water can actually dehydrate cells in which it comes into contact.

The lower the surface tension, the lower the wetting angle and the “wetter” the water becomes. With a lower surface tension and a low wetting angle, cells become fully hydrated and the water is fully and most effectively utilized by the body. By this means, cellular hydration is achieved.


Of direct biological interest, if for any reason nutrients are unable to influx into cells or efflux and remove the toxins from cells, the cells die due to accumulation of their own metabolic waste products.

In order for toxins to leave the cells and nutrients to enter the cells, the cells must be in intimate contact with water. Thus, a low surface tension environment is optimal for cellular health. In fact, it has been demonstrated that an increase of over 64 times nutrient capacity was observed by doubling the speed of fluid flow. Lowering surface tension and wetting angle is directly related to the speed of the fluid across cell membranes.

Hence, while water is one of the most important things we can put into our body, it is only the right kind of water that produces health and longevity. An individual could drink significant volumes of water at 73 dynes/cm, but without the micronutrients in your body to make the conversion to 45 dynes/cm, the body will be dehydrated at a cellular level.

Dehydrated cells metabolize in a catabolic state, which means the body starts utilizing its own tissue for energy production, resulting in degeneration of cellular health and immune response. Over time this process may result in auto immune diseases, such as lupus, MS, Chronic Fatigue, Rheumatoid Arthritis, allergies, and many more degenerative processes.

With this in mind, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the dietary intake of water is in its most useful form, i.e., the form that produces the greatest hydration in the body. There are many compounds and supplements that claim to catalytically increased nutrient absorption, however, most are unable to produce any empirical or other evidence to support those claims.


Crystal Energy hydrationRecent assays evaluating the functionality and efficacy of the nutritional supplement, Crystal Energy®, demonstrate the innate ability of the compound to reduce surface tension and wetting angle, while increasing nutrient absorption through increased fluid speed and diffusion rates. All the while increasing the conductivity and dissolved solids within the solution. Crystal Energy®, is the retail name for Flanagan Microcluster® colloids, that were developed and perfected by Dr. G. Patrick Flanagan.

Dr. Flanagan discovered that anomalous properties that sustain increased longevity and lifespan are the result of a special type of colloidal mineral found in some types of water. This is true of five main areas in the world, including Hunzaland in Pakistan, where larger numbers of people are often known to live past 100 years old while maintaining excellent health. Locals from these areas attribute their longevity to the water they drink. It was the study of these special minerals and ions that led to the development of Crystal Energy® concentrate.

Microcluster minerals, which are found in Crystal Energy, alter the structure of drinking water and reduce the surface tension. These attributes are the keys to the secrets of the Hunza water.

Microcluster minerals are unique in that they have a very high electrical charge (Zeta potential) and are small enough to be easily utilized in the body. Normally the charges on ordinary colloidal minerals have little or no effect on the structure of water. Colloids that are found in dead sea beds and mineral clays have low zeta potential and are too large to be used by a living system.

Zeta potential represents a basic and fundamental Law of Nature. It plays a vital role in all forms of plant and animal life. It is the force that maintains the discreteness of the billions of circulating cells that nourish the organism.

Microcluster minerals consist of elements and combinations of elements which are by definition in the smallest possible size range while still remaining molecules. When Flanagan Microcluster® silica colloids are diluted for drinking, they have such powerful surface energies that they have a profound and significant effect on the water, including decreased surface tension, as measured in dynes per centimeter.

Hunza water has a surface tension value of 58 dynes/cm. Crystal Energy treated water has an even lower surface tension than Hunza water and a greater Zeta potential, providing a more advantageous environment in the organism. Assimilation of nutrients and vitamins from our foods is largely dependant on our body’s ability to wet and process nutrients in the digestive system.

The ability to wet foods depends on the Zeta potential and surface tension of our digestive fluids. Through this mechanism, Crystal Energy demonstrates a significant impact on how nutrients are absorbed into the living system.

To quantify the efficacy and mechanism of Crystal Energy, a series of analytical tests were performed: Diffusion kinetics to determine the fluid speed and nutrient absorption characteristics were measured through the spectrophotometric monitoring of visible light absorbance of a food-grade dye and select vitamins in water, osmotically diffusing across a semi-permeable dialysis membrane. Additional assays were performed following the change in surface tension, conductivity and total dissolved solids with the incremental addition of Crystal Energy to various waters.

Surface Tension Analysis: The surface tension levels of ten different commercially available waters were analyzed before and after treatment with Crystal Energy. Surface tension was monitored by a Du Nouys Ring Model 21 Surface Tensiomat and measured in dynes per centimeter. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) measurements were made with an Orion model TDS-1 meter and reported in parts per million. Conductivity was determined by a Sper Scientific SP-2 conductivity meter and reported in Siemens.

For each assay, instruments were calibrated and 35.0 mL of analyte water were added to a plastic weigh boat and placed on the surface tensiomat platform. Initial readings were taken with the tensiomat, TDS and conductivity meters. Sequentially one drop of Crystal Energy was added and subsequent readings of surface tension, TDS and conductivity were taken. This protocol was followed for two and four drops as well. Each analysis was performed with six replicates.

The results indicate a mean reduction in surface tension of 35% over the course of the assays. In each replicate and water type, the conductivity increased and the total dissolved solids increased. Increases in conductivity of up to 45% were observed in the treated waters. Increases in total dissolved solids up to 40% were also observed. The decrease in surface tension of 35% places most of the Crystal Energy® treated waters in the range of 43 to 47 dynes/cm clearly demonstrating the decrease in wetting angle and “wetness” of the waters. This range, as previously mentioned, is optimal for biological activity and maximized nutrient assimilation.

The increase in Total Dissolved Solids shows that many minerals in the water are being broken down to their smallest, dissolved states. This is further supported by the increases in conductivity which additionally promote better assimilation, nutrient transfer, and increases in reaction kinetics. Coupled together, the addition of the Crystal Energy creates an environment optimized for increased rates of nutrient assimilation as well as toxin removal from cellular structures!

Diffusion Kinetics: As a means to validate and understand the preceding results and to determine any increase in the speed of the fluids and differences in the diffusion kinetics, a second series of experimentations were executed that monitored the influx of a colored dye and vitamin C through a semi-permeable dialysis membrane over the course of several days. This environment best mimics the human cellular system and the dialysis membranes have similar diffusion properties to that of a human phospholipids cell.

To start the experimentation, 190 mL of analysis water were added to a Pyrex beaker. 10 mL of a 0.5 mg/mL solution of Red #5 food coloring and a 0.5 mg/mL vitamin C solution in their respective analysis waters were added to the 190 mL beaker. 10 mL of the analysis water were added to a wetted and tied 2 cm diameter dialysis tube and suspended in the solution. Treated waters were conditioned with 10 drops of Flanagan Crystal Energy®.

Readings were taken with a spectrophotometer initially and at the following intervals: 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. Spectra were taken from 340 to 700 nm and were blanked against the respective analysis water. Data were collected at 350 and 523 nm for the vitamin C and red #5 dye, respectively. Controls using tap, spring and distilled water and with both food coloring only and food coloring with vitamin c were used to verify the adsorption and quantification consistency of the vitamin c in solution.

The absorbance data (diffusion rates) showed a significant linear increase up to the 4 hour mark, at which time the diffusion rates slowed significantly and then leveled off by the 24 hour mark and maintained the concentration up to the end of the assay at 48 hours. The mean increase in diffusion rate between a Crystal Energy treated water and a non-treated water was 2.51 +/- 0.15 (Standard Deviation 0.003) times greater. These results clearly indicate a significant increase in fluid speed and nutrient absorption. This equates to an 80 times greater potential for nutrient carrying capacity. The significant increases in diffusion rate compared to controls demonstrate a profound ability of Crystal Energy® to aid in increasing the catalytic nutrient absorption properties of water .


Overall, all of the precision of the data were exceptionally consistent with each other clearly indicating: 1) A mean increase in the rate of nutrient flow across the membrane of 2.5 times over that of non-treated water. 2) A mean decrease in surface tension of 35%. 3) A mean increase in Total Dissolved Solids of 40%, and 4) A mean increase in conductivity of 45%.

All data indicated the requirements needed to optimize an environment for nutrient assimilation through decreased surface tension, wetting angle and increases in Total Dissolved Solids and conductivity were satisfied. Through the controlled monitoring of the diffusion of common water soluble vitamins, Crystal Energy® demonstrates the innate ability to act as a catalyst and aid in the increased rate of absorption in an in vitro, mock-cellular environment. The increase in absorption rates, coupled with its wetting properties, clearly demonstrate the Crystal Energy® conditions water to be highly optimized and essentially prepared for assimilation by the body.



“Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Diffusion Kinetics and Surface Tension Differentiation by a Colloidal Silicate Minerals” by Cory J. Stephanson, PhD and G. Patrick Flanagan, MD, PhD.
From: http://phisciences.com/wp-content/uploads/Quantitative-Analysis-of-Membrane-7.pdf

Dr Gerald Pollack’s TED talk on water: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-T7tCMUDXU
Contact Us:

You can reach HPDI by calling 1-800-228-4265, email support(at)IntegratedHealth.com, or visit the retail website: www.IntegratedHealth.com

Health care professionals and retailers can apply for wholesale account, which includes access to the HPDI reseller website: www.HealthProductsDistributors.com



Fred Liers PhD riboseAvoiding excess dietary sugars is one of the healthiest things. But there is one sugar that really is good for you. That sugar is D-ribose.

In fact, D-ribose is so healthy for you, it may be the one sugar you won’t want to live without. A little background to this amazing sugar.

D-ribose is a 5-carbon monosaccharide occurring naturally in living cells. D-ribose importantly forms the carbohydrate parts of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). That means d-ribose is the sugar essential for the biological function of all living creatures, including humans.

Supplemental D-ribose is associated with many benefits. These benefits include greater energy, less fatigue, and faster muscle recovery. These benefits relate to the capacities of D-ribose as a total body energizer because it boosts energy production (as ATP) in the body.

For individuals suffering low energy levels associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), low energy levels, and other problems related to low energy (ATP) production, D-ribose can mean a significantly higher level of energy. In cases of extremely low energy, it can mean the capacity to function more normally.

ribose energy woman power health

D-ribose energizes every cell in our bodies.

Athletes and bodybuilders were among the earliest to recognize D-ribose for purposes of improving performance and recovery times. D-Ribose also exerts anti-anxiety, stress reduction, and potential anti-depressant properties. There is additional evidence suggesting that supraphysiological amounts of ribose may have cardioprotective effects, especially for the ischemic heart.

Supplemental D-ribose usually comes in the form of a sweet, crystalline, water-soluble powder. It is also available in capsules or tablets, including chewable tablets.

Humans synthesize d-ribose from foods, including glucose and various dietary sugars. But there are benefits to supplemental D-ribose. One of the major reasons is the important role of D-ribose in the production of energy (ATP) in human cells.













ribose sugar natural heart energy ATP RNA

D-ribose is heart healthy unlike most dietary sugars (e.g., sucrose).


The body uses D-ribose to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  ATP provides energy for all bodily movements and every chemical reaction in cells. ATP is the source of all energy in the body and it’s constantly broken down and recreated due to the processes of life.

The adenine portion of ATP consists of one molecule of adenine and ribose (i.e., five-carbon sugar). The triphosphate portion of ATP consists of three phosphate molecules. When a phosphate breaks off from ATP, then energy is released. The compound then becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which consists of adenosine and two phosphate molecules. When another phosphate molecule breaks off, it becomes adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

It is well established that ratios of ATP, ADP, and AMP are essential for regulating energy in cells. Under extreme physiological stress (e.g., high-intensity exercise), our cells cannot recreate ATP rapidly enough to supply cells with required energy. Concentrations of ADP and AMP rise causing a reduction in cellular energy. When the body’s rate of ATP use continues exceeding the rate at which it can be generated, cells “lose” nucleotides in order to restore the ratio between ATP, ADP, and AMP.

During anaerobic metabolism, AMP levels can rise within cells, thereby disturbing the ratios of ATP to ADP and AMP. The body can reduce AMP concentrations by degrading AMP to simpler end products resulting in a significant decrease in the adenine nucleotide pool. Under extreme conditions (e.g., prolonged high-intensity exercise or the diminished blood flow to tissues witnessed in ischemia), the adenine nucleotide pool may decrease by 30–50%. These effects can significantly compromise physical performance.

Here is where D-ribose supplementation works to support energy production. Supplemental D-ribose allows the body to bypass relatively slow conversion steps required for recreating the adenosine nucleotide providing critical material for ATP production. That is, D-ribose can increase the speed of nucleotide replacement. This has implications not only for sports performance, but also for general health. D-ribose is especially useful in situations where greater energy may be required, as in low energy, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, or combating the effects of aging.


One of the most important aspects of D-ribose for health relates to the fact that it is the rate-limiting compound that regulates the activity of the purine nucleotide pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. As such, ribose plays a central role not only in the synthesis of ATP, but also of coenzyme-A, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), DNA, RNA, and other important cellular constituents.

In fact, D-ribose is the only known compound the body can use for performing this critical metabolic function. Specifically, ribose administration bypasses the slow and rate-limited pentose phosphate pathway to stimulate adenine nucleotide synthesis and salvage in vivo. In addition, it has been shown that de novo adenine nucleotide synthesis in skeletal muscle is rate limited by the availability of ribose.

Specifically, human muscle cells (e.g., heart and skeletal muscle cells) do not rapidly replace lost nucleotides because of the lack of two rate-limiting enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway metabolizing glucose to ribose-5-phosphate. Ribose itself forms 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, a rate-limiting compound in nucleotide synthesis. As noted, supplemental D-ribose allow the body to bypass the rate-limited steps of the pentose phosphate pathway, thereby accelerating nucleotide synthesis (and salvage).


It should not take a genius to figure out that when energy production is optimized, overall health will improve. Yet, the same principle also applies in reverse. That is, there are many instances in which low energy levels can fuel lower energy levels. For example, when illness, stressors, or other factors deplete large amounts of the body’s supply of energy, they can gradually (or not so gradually) lessen the body’s capacity to produce more by overtaxing the energy production system.

This cascade of reduced energy production can become a vicious cycle in which there are few reserves left to support the body’s need for greater energy. D-Ribose is one of the only nutrients that can reverse the downward spiral in ATP production when demands exceed supply. By feeding the body’s own system for producing energy, and thereby supplying the raw material required to produce it, supplemental D-ribose can helps break the cycle of low energy levels.

fatigue ribose natural sugar energy atp cells

Chronic low energy? D-ribose is required for creating energy for all biological functions.


To recap the importance of supplemental D-ribose: D-ribose increases the rate at which ATP is generated. This improves exercise performance and allows for faster muscle growth. All this is possible because supplemental ribose helps the body bypass the conversion steps needed to create or re-create adenosine nucleotides.

Because replacing adenine nucleotides normally requires a certain amount of time, providing the body with D-ribose supplementally via diet can reduce rates of healing and repair in muscle cells. That is, supplemental D-ribose can increase the speed at which adenosine nucleotides are replaced by providing raw material for the creation of more ATP. That is how D-ribose improves athletic performance and supports optimal energy production, as well as optimal muscle health.

The significance of the science behind ATP production is that almost everyone can benefit from supplemental D-ribose. Whether you are an athlete requiring rapid repletion of energy, a person suffering from low energy levels or chronic fatigue, or anyone who wishes to improve energy production supporting optimal health.

ribose energizes beautiful athletic girl with colorful balloons jumping on the beach

Fatigued to fantastic: a plentiful supply of D-ribose helps ensure an abundance of energy.


We at HPDI have focused our efforts on formulating the most effective nutritional supplements and superfoods. When Dr. Hank Liers formulated our original high-RNA Rejuvenate! superfood, he put D-ribose into it. In fact, all of our Rejuvenate! superfoods provide significant amounts of D-ribose.

Rejuvenate! (original greens) provides 1,500 mg D-ribose per serving (one small scoop). Rejuvenate! PLUS provides 1,800 mg per serving (two scoops). Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs provides 2,000 mg per serving (two scoops).

ribose energy dietary nucleic acids rejuvenate superfoods

All Rejuvenate! superfoods provide high levels of D-Ribose.

A major reason HPDI includes D-ribose in its superfoods–and perhaps the most obvious one–is simply that we formulate unique, high-RNA superfoods to support optimal energy production in the body. D-ribose supports that goal by various means.

D-ribose is the rate-limiting sugar for the uptake and assimilation of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, nucleotides, and nucleosides). This is because D-ribose is actually the sugar backbone of these nutrients. As such, the body requires D-ribose in order to utilize and create (or recreate) dietary nucleic acids.

For example, nucleotides are the molecular building blocks of DNA and RNA. They are chemical compounds consisting of a heterocyclic base, a 5-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and at least one phosphate group. They are the monomers of nucleic acids, and 3 or more can bond together to form a nucleic acid.

Nucleosides are glycosylamines consisting of a base (or nucleobase) to a ribose (or deoxyribose) ring. Some nucleosides are cytidine, adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. When nucleosides are phosphorylated in cells, they produce nucleotides (see above).

Thus, D-ribose plays important roles as an essential part of nucleic acids, nucleotides, and nucleosides; in the production of energy (as ATP); and the synthesis and salvage of nucleotides in the body.

Rejuvenate! superfoods are formulated to provide high levels of nucleic acids. D-ribose helps the body optimize its use of nucleic acids and their constituent components. Having D-ribose in our superfoods not only supports energy production directly, but also allows maximum use of the dietary RNA they are formulated to provide.

Rejuvenate! superfoods provide nutrients that boost energy levels significantly and consistently for optimal health, healing, and wellness. The inclusion of D-ribose importantly supports the powerful nucleic acid nutrition these superfoods offer, as well as supplements the body’s intake and synthesis of D-ribose.

ribose energy rejuvenate plus (500g) RNA nucleic acids doctor hank liers original

REJUVENATE! PLUS provides 1,800 mg of D-ribose per serving.


D-Ribose of one of the most important natural sugars for life and health. It is one of the few nutrients that can boost energy levels naturally. When taken with other important biological nutrients, including dietary RNA, DNA, nucleotides, and nucleosides, D-ribose is truly a nutritional powerhouse that can support good health and the energy levels required to live life to its fullest. We believe the best way to obtain supplemental D-ribose is to consume Rejuvenate! superfoods.












Pentose-Phosphate Pathway: Elsevier’s Review of Biochemistry

From Fatigued to Fantastic (excerpt) by Jacob Teitelbaum, MD

D-Ribose technical information (Vista Chemicals)

Enhancing Cardiac Energy with Ribose (LEF)


The Use of D-Ribose in Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (J Altern Complement Med.)

D-Ribose Aids Advanced Ischemic Heart Failure Patients (Int J Cardiol.)

D-Ribose, a Metabolic Substrate for Congestive Heart Failure (Prog Cardiovasc Nurs.)

D-Ribose as a Supplement for Cardiac Energy Metabolism (J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther.)

Ribose Accelerates the Repletion of the ATP Pool During Recovery from Reversible Ischemia of the Rat Myocardium (J Mol Cell Cardiol.)

Significance of the 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate pool for cardiac purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis: studies with ribose, adenine, inosine, and orotic acid in rats (Cardiovasc Drugs Ther.)

Stimulation of Myocardial Adenine Nucleotide Biosynthesis by Pentoses and Pentitols (Pflugers Arch.)

The Role of Ribose on Oxidative Stress During Hypoxic Exercise (J. Med. Food)

D-Ribose Benefits Restless Legs Syndrome (J Altern Complement Med.)