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ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS – SEVEN ARGUMENTS FOR NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

Fred Liers PhD nutrients nutritional supplementsAlmost daily articles, reports, or studies appear claiming nutritional supplements are not effective. The claims vary, but the verdict is always there is little or no scientific evidence proving supplements (or the nutrients in supplements) work. Others assert that people who take supplements have the world’s most expensive urine. This is nonsense! The scientific evidence is clear, available, and it has been for a long time.

Among the many problems with these reports is bashing supplements based on studies using low dose or non-therapeutic levels of nutrients. There is frequently failure to consider the importance of synergy among nutrients. Often there is data manipulation via statistical methods (often in meta-analyses).

Well beyond the question of whether supplements support health are the factors in modern life that create a greater needs for supplementing with important vitamins, minerals, cofactors, and other nutrients.

This month we present “Seven Arguments for Nutritional Supplements.” As the title implies, there are at least seven solid arguments for nutritional supplementation. There are actually a lot more.

To preview these arguments in favor of taking supplements, they are: 1) reduced food quality, 2) nutrient density varies by location, 3) modern lifestyles and stress, 4) environmental pollution, 5) too low RDAs, and 6) promotion of health and delaying of aging, and 7) the human right to correct information.

essential nutrients fatty acids EFA supplement

Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) are one type of essential nutrient required for health.

We at HPDI re-publish articles from the Orthomolecular News Service  (OMNS) because the authors provide much needed truth. Truth the form of correcting the false assumptions of anti-supplement propagandists to clarify the benefits of nutritional supplements. This information can help people be healthier easily and at relatively low cost.

HPDI offers a full line of foundational nutritional supplements, including multivitamins, vitamin C and antioxidant formulas, essential fats, and high-RNA Rejuvenate! superfoods. We also offer nearly 100 other nutritional supplements from single nutrients to condition specific formulas. See our full product overview.

Enjoy this article from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS). ~

Seven Arguments for Taking Nutritional Supplements

by Dag Viljen Poleszynski, PhD

(OMNS Sept 12 2018)

One of the most vitamin-restrictive countries in the world is Norway. There, authorities limit potencies to only slightly higher than RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) levels for dietary supplements sold outside of pharmacies. The traditional reasoning is that most people receive the nutrients they need from a “balanced diet.” [1]

The authorities are also obsessively concerned that some vitamins and minerals are harmful in high doses. And, since an intake of water-soluble vitamins in excess of needs is excreted in the urine, Norwegian “experts” advise that taking supplements is a waste of money.

Accordingly, the argument goes, the public should be protected not only from possible harm, but also from wasting money on unnecessary nutrients. The official policies on nutritional supplements vary within OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Some are more liberal, while others are even more restrictive.

The official view on the connection between nutrient intake and possible toxicity is illustrated by the Norwegian Food Authority in a graph. [2]

Perceived risk from intake of nutrients. (Source: Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Safe upper limits for Vitamins and Minerals. May 2003: Food Standards Agency, UK.)

The graph illustrates the official view on nutrients, assuming that nutrients function in the same way as pharmaceuticals, which they do not. Supplements of most vitamins, but also minerals and other nutrients, do not have very serious side effects even when taken at very high levels – in contrast with most drugs. [3,4] The fact that most of the chemotherapeutic drugs used against cancer have none or even just marginal effects against most cancers [5], while at the same time cause a lot of serious side effects, is rarely up for discussion.

The idea that nutritional supplements are not safe has a legal underpinning in Norwegian Food Law, which in section 16 prohibits sale of any food which is not safe: “Any food shall be considered not to be safe if it is seen as detrimental to health or not fit for consumption.” [6]

However, the Norwegian authorities do admit that vitamin D supplements are needed during part of the year. [1] Only part of the year? One third of Norway is within the Arctic Circle. Norway has far too little sunshine (especially during winter months) to get adequate levels of vitamin D from UVB radiation on the skin.

The authorities also recommend that pregnant women take folic acid to prevent birth defects, and omega-3-fatty acids may be advisable for those who do not eat fish regularly. Norwegians have a long tradition of giving children cod liver oil, which in a daily tablespoon provides enough vitamin A and D and essential fatty acids to cover basic needs.

Essential and conditionally essential nutrients

There are thousands of dietary supplements on the market, including 40+ essential nutrients alone and in various combinations, i.e. vitamins, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids. However, a number of other nutrients are “conditionally essential”, meaning that the body normally can make these molecules, but some people do not make optimal amounts. Examples are L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, the methyl donor betaine, [7] chondroitin sulfate, coenzyme Q10, choline, amino acids such as tyrosine or arginine, and “essential” sugars normally formed in the body. [8]

Healthy young people normally make sufficient amounts of conditionally essential molecules in the body, although the levels are not always optimal. With inadequate levels of minerals or vitamins, key enzymes in biochemical pathways may not function optimally.

Due to genetic mutations, some enzymes may have increased needs for certain cofactors (vitamins), which can prevent them from functioning optimally.[9] Some enzymes only function normally when supplied with cofactors in greater amounts than normally required.

If supplements of essential nutrients prove insufficient for optimal enzyme function, “conditionally essential” nutrients may be added as part of a comprehensive, therapeutic program.

Some reservations

Parents are advised to become familiar with the literature on essential nutrients, for instance by consulting the Orthomolecular News Service. Children should be given supplements in appropriate doses and in a suitable form. Pills should not be given before children can control the swallowing reflex. Multivitamin powder can be given dissolved in water or juice. Parents should not dose vitamin C so high that a child comes to school or kindergarten with loose bowels or diarrhea.

In high doses, niacin may cause unpleasant side effects such as flushing and itching lasting up to several hours. [10] Although this is not dangerous, it may cause a child to feel unwell and anxious. Starting niacin supplementation with a low dose and gradually increasing it will allow the body to adapt and avoid the niacin flush.

A multivitamin supplement containing moderate amounts of niacin is often adequate until a child is 8-10 years old. For younger children, the dosage should start with only a few tens of milligrams, and not increased to more than 50-100 mg/day. Adults may gradually get used to taking 1,000-1,500 mg/d divided into 3 doses per day.

When it comes to omega-3 fatty acids (omega = ω) such as EPA and DHA, children may be given cod liver oil and served fish and/or other seafood 2-3 times a week. It is important to check the dose of vitamin A supplied, as it can be toxic in high doses, especially for children. One problem with cod liver oil today is that vitamin D has been removed during processing, thus changing the natural ratio of the two vitamins so that we ingest relatively too much of vitamin A. [11]

Higher dosages may be given after having consulted a therapist who has measured the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in relevant cell membranes (red blood cells). In most industrialized countries, many people get too much of the omega-6 fatty acids, and would therefore benefit from eating more seafood or taking supplements with omega-3 fatty acids derived from organisms low in the food chain (algae, krill).

Flax seeds contain a high level of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, and freshly ground flaxseed meal or flax oil can be mixed with breakfast cereals or smoothies. Note that it may be advisable to limit eating farmed fish to once per week, since their fodder contains less omega-3 fatty acids than the food eaten by wild fish, and possibly also contains more contaminants. [12] Some researchers even warn against letting children eat too much fish because of the content of environmental toxins. [13,14]

Reasons for high-dose supplements of micronutrients

I have identified a number of arguments in favor of supplementing the modern diet with essential nutrients, here summarized with seven headlines. Most people should consider taking a multivitamin supplement containing vitamins and minerals even if they eat a nutritionally balanced diet.

Additional nutrients may contribute to better health and, in some cases, can be of vital importance in our modern world. The arguments are presented in random order, i.e. the order does not reflect priority.

1. The agricultural revolution has reduced food quality

The transition from an existence as hunter and gatherers to urban agriculture around 10,000 years ago began an epoch when foods were mass-produced but had lower nutritional density, compared with the previous food eaten by our ancestors. The nutritional density in many foods has fallen significantly since human societies transformed from hunter-gatherers into resident farmers. This is especially true in the last 60-70 years after agriculture was changed from small, versatile ecologically driven family farms to large, chemical-based, industrial agriculture. [15]

The reduction of nutritional content in modern crops, compared with older varieties, is well documented. [16] It is a consequence of soil erosion, loss of essential minerals from continual heavy use, combined with breeding of new varieties, which has increased the size and growth rate of plants by increasing the content of sugar and water and decreasing their mineral content compared to ancient species. At the same time, the relative content of other macronutrients (fat, protein/amino acids) and antioxidants may have been reduced.

Reduced nutritional density in many foods, combined with the use of refined “foods” like sugar, white flour and refined oils, places a greater priority on eating the most nutritious foods.

Farm produce grown organically generally has higher levels of essential nutrients such as trace minerals because the soil contains higher levels of trace minerals and the produce grows slower and thus has more time to absorb nutrients from the soil. Examples of nutrient dense foods are sardines, wild salmon, shellfish, eggs, liver, kale, collards and spinach, sea plants (seaweed), garlic, blueberries, and dark chocolate. [17]

2. Nutritional content of food varies with geographical location

Nutritional density varies considerably geographically between different regions, even with the same agricultural methods. This was documented in the United States in 1948 by a researcher at Rutgers University in the so-called Firman Bear report. [18] At that time agriculture was little mechanized, and artificial fertilizers and pesticides were hardly used.

The analysis found large differences in the content of minerals in the same food. The largest variations were found for potassium, sodium, boron and iron in spinach, while the greatest differences in calcium, magnesium and copper content were found in tomatoes.

The soil in areas with relatively low rainfall may in some cases contain an extremely high concentration of minerals, which is reflected in the plants growing there. This was well documented 70 years ago in the book Tomorrow’s Food. [19] The dentist George W. Heard found that the soil in Hereford, Texas, was exceptionally rich in minerals.[20]

Hereford became known as the “town without a toothache” after a newspaper article from January 29, 1942, reported that Hereford had the lowest incidence of tooth decay of any city in the United States. [21] Dr. Heard found that people in Hereford had exceptionally few dental cavities and also that the soil locally was especially rich in minerals. He emphasized that the population in the county ate unprocessed food and was drinking raw milk. [19]

Recent research shows that differences in the content of the selenium in the soil can cause major differences in the concentration of selenium in meat. [22] For instance, since the soil in Finland is poor in selenium, the authorities decided in the early 1980s to add selenate to commercial fertilizers. A survey of selenium status among 108 healthy young people showed an increase in the blood selenium level of about 50 percent after four years. [23]

A similar problem with the level of minerals in the soil exists for the content of magnesium. Often when the soil gets depleted of magnesium from heavy use, this essential mineral is not included in soil amendment with fertilizers. Produce grown in soil with an adequate level of magnesium will contain more magnesium than produce grown in soil deficient in magnesium.

Perhaps as many as 70-80% of the US population is magnesium-deficient, which causes many health problems. [24] Magnesium supplements (chloride, malate or citrate) can provide an adequate level when vegetables grown in soil with adequate magnesium are not available.

3. Stress and the modern lifestyle increase the need for nutrients

Mental stress increases the excretion and hence the need for many nutrients. Among the most important are magnesium and vitamin C, both of which are used by the body in larger quantities during periods of physical and mental stress. [24,25] Compared with our past as hunters and gatherers, today´s stress is often of a more permanent nature. Instead of experiencing occasional situations where we had to fight or flee, many of us live with recurring stress day in and out.

Vitamin C protects the brain and nervous system from damage caused by stress because the synthesis and maintenance of chemical neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and noradrenaline requires adequate levels of vitamin C. [25]

Vitamin C is also needed to repair collagen which is essential for skin, blood vessels, bones and joints, and muscles. When these are damaged by physical stress, extra vitamin C is necessary.

A controlled trial of 91 adults who experienced increased anxiety and stress 2-3 months after an earthquake in New Zealand in 2011 was divided into three groups, two were given a broad spectrum supplement of micronutrients in low or higher doses. [26] The supplements were found to alleviate the experience of stress, with the biggest dose having the biggest effect.

Our sedate, modern lifestyle reduces the need for energy from food, which implies a lower food intake or obesity. Loren Cordain, PhD, and coworkers have estimated that hunter-gatherers had significantly higher energy needs than the typical modern office worker. [27]

A lower energy intake generally reduces the absolute intake of all nutrients, while the need for some nutrients is not always reduced proportionally with energy intake. Overall this suggests that more exercise along with a more nutritious diet, including supplements of essential nutrients and less carbohydrates, will help to prevent obesity and maintain health.

Processing of food reduces its nutritional content, and the finished products are often based on fractions of the original foods. One example is milling grain to make white flour, [1] which has a lower nutritional density than whole grain flour.

The reduction in nutritional value has accelerated since whole foods are now divided into pieces, for example, boneless chicken breast. When meat is injected with saline to increase the volume, the relative level of essential nutrients is reduced. In the United States, many supermarkets in low-income rural and inner city areas have a limited selection of nutrient-dense foods, compared with high-income areas. [28]

4. Environmental pollutants increase the need for nutrients

The need for efficient detoxification and excretion is greatly increased by environmental pollution from the chemical industry, herbicides and pesticides used by industrial agriculture, antibiotic treatment of animals, transport, and plastic packaging. [29]

In our polluted world, the increased toxic load may be compensated for by an increase in nutrients to promote detoxification. One can respond by taking large doses of supplements of essential nutrients, for example, antioxidants vitamin C and E, and an adequate dose of selenium, which help the body detoxify harmful chemicals. Also helpful is regularly taking sauna baths, fasting periodically, and eating an excellent diet that includes generous portions of dark green leafy vegetables and colorful vegetables and fruits. [30]

A recent study predicts that global warming may reduce the nutrient density in many foods worldwide. [31] Atmospheric CO2 is estimated to surpass 550 ppm in the next 30-80 years, leading to larger crops with lower content of protein, iron and zinc per energy unit.

Assuming that diets remain constant, while excluding other climate impacts on food production, the researchers estimated that elevated CO2 could cause an additional 175 million people to be zinc deficient and an additional 122 million people to be protein deficient in 2050. Anemia would increase significantly if crops lose even a small amount of iron. The highest risk regions – South and Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East – are especially vulnerable, since they do not have the means and access to compensate using nutritional supplements.

5. The RDA for essential nutrients is too low

The recommended nutrient reference intake (NRI) has been defined by UK authorities and the EU Food Safety Agency as the dose that is adequate for 95 percent of the population. [32] These authorities have given recommendations for a total of 41 chemical substances, [33] including 13 vitamins, 17 minerals/trace elements, 9 amino acids and two fatty acids. The problem with such guidelines is that when using the same 0.95 fraction for just 16 of the essential nutrients, the fraction of the overall population that has their needs met with the RDA is less than half (0.9516 = 0.44).

Given the above assumption, the proportion of the population having all nutrient needs met falls below 25 percent for 30 nutrients (0.9530 = 0.21). These 25 percent will not necessarily get optimal amounts, just enough so that they probably will have no deficiencies in accordance with established standards. Each individual is different and has different biochemical needs, so we all need different doses of essential nutrients. Many vitamins and minerals can give additional benefit when taken at higher doses.

The need for several essential nutrients increases with age and sickness. This applies, for example, to vitamin C, vitamin D, magnesium, and iron. In 2017 the Norwegian Food Safety Authority proposed to revise the official maximum levels for vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements. [34]

Their proposal introduced four different age categories with separate maximum intakes. Initially, the agencies proposed to revise the daily doses allowed in dietary supplements for folic acid, magnesium, calcium, vitamin C and D. At the same time, maximum rates were temporarily suspended for vitamins A, E, K, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenate (B5), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamine (B12), biotin, and for phosphorus, iron, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, sodium, potassium, fluoride, chloride, boron and silicon.

The upper limits for some nutrients may be changed in the future. Unfortunately, Norwegian nutrition “experts” will likely continue to limit allowable doses below those freely available in the US and even Sweden.

6. An optimal nutrient intake promotes health and delays aging

A spokesperson for optimal nutritional intake is the well-known biochemist Bruce Ames, who proposed the “triage theory of nutrients,” in which enzymes responsible for cell maintenance functions evolved to have lower affinity for the essential vitamin and mineral cofactors than the enzymes responsible for short-term survival, to preserve life during times of famine. [35]

Thus, higher levels of vitamins and minerals may delay mitochondrial aging, speed up the repair of large molecules such as DNA and collagen, and generally improve other cellular functions. This is an important rationale for taking higher doses of vitamins and minerals than recommended reference intakes.

Dietary supplements can slow the aging process, in part by reducing the harmful effects of free radicals, known to be involved in many diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. [36]

Naturally occurring hormones and/or supplements of cofactors needed for optimal hormone production in the body can have a significant life-prolonging effect if the body produces less than optimal amounts. [37] This is especially relevant for those with a genetic predisposition for disease.

An optimum intake of all nutrients is difficult to achieve even for those who eat almost exclusively an excellent diet of nutrient dense foods, such as meat and innards, fish, shellfish, fowl, eggs, nuts, mushrooms, and vegetables, berries and nutritious fruits. Some nutrients such as folic acid or carotenoids in vegetables are absorbed better from processed than unprocessed foods.

Although vegetables are often considered to be a good source of vitamins, for example vitamin A from carrots, vitamin A is only found in animal products such as liver, egg yolk, fish cod and cod liver oil. Although eating raw vegetables is helpful for several reasons (vitamin C, fiber, microbiota), carotenoids (alpha/beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene) in vegetables are less well absorbed from raw than cooked food and better absorbed in the presence of added fat. [38,39].

Nutrients in vegetables are better absorbed when finely chewed, graded, or mashed [38], and cooking and grinding meat reduces the energy required to digest it [40] and increases nutrient absorption [41].

Orthomolecular pioneer Abram Hoffer and Orthomolecular News Service Editor Andrew W. Saul suggested this list of daily intakes of vitamins and minerals. [42] The Norwegian 2017 recommendations for adult men and women [43] are given in comparison. Individual needs may vary substantially from person to person and also with health status.

The figures for optimal intake are obtained from the Independent Vitamin Safety Review Panel of physicians, researchers and academics, who concluded:

“People are deceived in believing that they can get all the nutrients they need from a ‘balanced diet’ consisting of processed foods. To achieve an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals, a diet of unprocessed whole foods, along with intelligent use of dietary supplements is more than just a good idea: it is vital.” [44: 55]

A well-known example is vitamin C, which can effectively fight viral infections, prevent or reverse disease caused by bacteria, and help the body detoxify organic and inorganic toxins. [45] Vitamin C also reduces the risk for cancer, strengthens connective tissues (collagen), and counteracts stress by increasing the adrenal´s production of cortisol. The dose required is set according to the body’s need.

Nobel Price Laureate Linus Pauling suggested that an optimal daily intake of vitamin C could vary from at least 250 mg up to 20 grams per day. [46] Because unabsorbed vitamin C attracts water into the gut, some people may experience loose stools, gas and/or diarrhea by ingesting only 1-2 grams at a time, while others with a higher level of stress may tolerate 5-6 grams or more. The dose that causes loose stools is called the “bowel tolerance” for vitamin C. [47] To avoid the laxative effect of high doses, it is best to take vitamin C throughout the day in smaller divided doses.

When the body is stressed by disease, the gut will naturally absorb more vitamin C because the body needs more. To find the optimal dose, the intake should be increased until bowel tolerance is reached. Some people can tolerate more than 100,000 mg/d of vitamin C in divided doses during serious illness without having loose stool.

Liposomal vitamin C bypasses the normal bowel tolerance because it is absorbed directly through cell membranes, so higher doses can be tolerated without diarrhea.

7. A human right to receive correct information

Access to correct information about food and essential nutrients, including knowledge about the importance of food for health is a fundamental human right. Such information should not only provide a summary of the nutrient content of food, but in our opinion should also explain how dietary supplements can counteract deficiencies and prevent and reverse disease caused by nutrient deficiencies.

We should be free to purchase quality-controlled supplements of essential nutrients and to use them to counteract aging and damage from stress as part of a long-term health plan. The right to reject recommendations by doctors for symptomatic treatment with synthetic, some times life-threatening, drugs to alleviate symptoms should be included. [48,49]

I have not found any formulation of such rights from the Norwegian authorities. The role of parents and their right to receive correct health information is addressed in a book by lawyer Anne Kjersti C. Befring, a fellow at the University of Oslo since 2014. [50]

Summary

The use of dietary supplements is widespread. High doses of vitamins are thought to be helpful because they help the body recover from damage and maintain itself long-term. Many vitamins are not harmful in doses even 10 to 100-fold higher than officially recommended.

Some governments warn about possible negative side effects, even including increased mortality from “excessive” intake of certain supplements. However, supplements of essential nutrients have been available for more than 80 years. They are known to be safe, and the observed side effects are generally mild with few exceptions.

It is possible to ingest too much of certain vitamins and minerals (vitamin A, calcium, iron, copper, selenium) which may exacerbate an existing imbalance or lack of another mineral (magnesium, zinc). It is also important to balance intake of fatty acids in the omega-6 and omega-3 series, as most people get too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3.

Small children can be overdosed with adult doses of for example vitamin A or iron, and pills may be dangerous for babies or young children because they can get stuck in the throat. Therefore, I recommend consulting a doctor or nutritionist educated in orthomolecular medicine. Most people are likely to benefit from taking a broad-spectrum multivitamin/mineral supplement as a basic insurance against deficiencies.

Compared to pharmaceutical drugs, supplements of most essential nutrients are quite harmless. However, some supplements may have poor quality, or contain toxic metals such as lead or cadmium. Therefore, it is the duty of our authorities to ensure that potentially hazardous products or supplements of poor quality are not sold, and that consumers are offered fair prices in a free market.

An example where the Norwegian authorities do not follow up such basic duties is that pharmacies demand more than 1,600 Norwegian Kroner (about $190) per kg of vitamin C in powder form, which would cost less than $20 with free competition and no restrictions in permitted doses or outlets.

Those who want to use natural healing methods, such as the use of food and supplements of essential nutrients to prevent or reverse illness, should consult therapists who are qualified to give advice on how natural therapies can help.

I recommend that anyone interested in supplements read the references for this article as well as the archives of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/ and the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml . Both are free access online.

(Dag Viljen Poleszynski, PhD, is the editor of Helsemagasinet [Health Magazine] https://vof.no/arkiv/ . He has translated and published a large number of OMNS releases in Norwegian.)

 

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37. Hertoghe T. The hormone handbook. Copyright (c) 2006 Thierry Hertoghe. Surrey, UK: International Medical Publications, 2006.

38. Edwards AJ, Nguyen CH, You CS, et al. a- og ß-carotene from a commercial carrot puree are more bioavailable to humans than from boiled-mashed carrots, as determined using an extrinsic stable isotope reference method. Journal of Nutrition 2002; 132: 159-67. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/132/2/159/4687130

39. Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Clinton SK et al. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. The Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135: 431-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15735074

40. Boback SM, Cox CL, Ott BD et al. Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, molecular & integrative physiology 2007; 148: 651-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17827047

41. Carmody RN, Wrangham RW. Cooking and the human commitment to a high-quality diet. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 2009; 74: 427-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843593

42. Hoffer A, Saul AW. Orthomolecular medicine for everyone. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, Inc., 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1591202264

43. Hjartåker A, Pedersen JI, Müller H mfl. Grunnleggende ernæringslære. 3. utgave. [Basic nutrition] Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS, 2017.

44. Levy TE. Vitamin C, infectious diseases, & toxins. Curing the incurable. 3rd Edition. (c)Thomas E. Levy 2011. Medfox Pub. ISBN-13: 978-0977952021

45. Pauling L. How to live longer and feel better. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986. ISBN-13: 978-0870710964

46. Cathcart, RF III. The method of determining proper doses of vitamin C for the treatment of disease by titrating to bowel tolerance. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1981; 10: 125-32. http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1981/pdf/1981-v10n02-p125.pdf

47. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. A meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 279: 1200-5. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/187436

48. Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Furberg CD. Serious adverse drug events reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167: 1752-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17846394 .

49. Hitchen L. Adverse drug reactions result in 250 000 UK admissions a year. BMJ 2006; 332: 1109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690649 .

50. Befring AKC. Helse- og omsorgsrett. [Health and Care] Oslo: CappelenDamm AS, 2017.

Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: http://www.orthomolecular.org

Find a Doctor

To locate an orthomolecular physician near you: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml

The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource.

Editorial Review Board:

Ilyès Baghli, M.D. (Algeria)
Ian Brighthope, M.D. (Australia)
Prof. Gilbert Henri Crussol (Spain)
Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
Damien Downing, M.D. (United Kingdom)
Michael Ellis, M.D. (Australia)
Martin P. Gallagher, M.D., D.C. (USA)
Michael J. Gonzalez, N.M.D., D.Sc., Ph.D. (Puerto Rico)
William B. Grant, Ph.D. (USA)
Tonya S. Heyman, M.D. (USA)
Suzanne Humphries, M.D. (USA)
Ron Hunninghake, M.D. (USA)
Michael Janson, M.D. (USA)
Robert E. Jenkins, D.C. (USA)
Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
Jeffrey J. Kotulski, D.O. (USA)
Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D. (USA)
Homer Lim, M.D. (Philippines)
Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
Victor A. Marcial-Vega, M.D. (Puerto Rico)
Charles C. Mary, Jr., M.D. (USA)
Mignonne Mary, M.D. (USA)
Jun Matsuyama, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)
Dave McCarthy, M.D. (USA)
Joseph Mercola, D.O. (USA)
Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
Tahar Naili, M.D. (Algeria)
W. Todd Penberthy, Ph.D. (USA)
Dag Viljen Poleszynski, Ph.D. (Norway)
Jeffrey A. Ruterbusch, D.O. (USA)
Gert E. Schuitemaker, Ph.D. (Netherlands)
Thomas L. Taxman, M.D. (USA)
Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)
Garry Vickar, MD (USA)
Ken Walker, M.D. (Canada)
Anne Zauderer, D.C. (USA)

Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D. (USA), Editor-In-Chief
Editor, Japanese Edition: Atsuo Yanagisawa, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)
Robert G. Smith, Ph.D. (USA), Associate Editor
Helen Saul Case, M.S. (USA), Assistant Editor
Ralph K. Campbell, M.D. (USA), Contributing Editor
Michael S. Stewart, B.Sc.C.S. (USA), Technology Editor
Jason M. Saul, JD (USA), Legal Consultant

Comments and media contact: drsaul@doctoryourself.com OMNS welcomes but is unable to respond to individual reader emails. Reader comments become the property of OMNS and may or may not be used for publication.

0

FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS REMAIN FUNDAMENTAL

Fred Liers PhD foundational supplements remain fundamentalI spoke with an old friend recently. I will call him Joe.

Joe has digestive tract issues, including extreme diverticulosis. While I have provided him with suggestions for improved nutrition and supplement use in recent years, he hasn’t followed any of my recommendations seriously.

Instead Joe opted for a more conventional route. Now his situation has worsened dramatically, and he says he’s ready to start a program of improved nutrition and supplements. That’s good, even though it would be easier had he started sooner. Like I said, Joe is a good friend. I wish him health and happiness.

My initial advice to Joe remains the same as it would be for everyone. He should start with a dietary changes and a solid program of foundational supplements like those in the HPDI Foundational Supplements Program. He can later add enhancements and condition-specific formulas addressing his unique needs.

WHY FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS?

The HPDI Foundational Supplements program was developed by Hank Liers, PhD to provide optimal levels of basic nutrients important for good health. In our experience, the HPDI program works to support vibrant health. It also helps cover gaps left by poor diet, incomplete nutritional supplementation, and imbalances due to genetic factors. It helps to compensate for lower nutrients levels found in many modern foods both processed and/or produced by modern industrial agricultural methods (i.e., that deplete soils or block nutrient uptake).

Read more the HPDI Foundational Supplements Program.

6-types-supplements-foundation

HPDI’s foundational supplements program includes six categories of dietary supplements.

JOE’S DIET IS NOT SO GOOD

I don’t like to be overly prescriptive about food. But Joe is a “carb” lover and with a history of consuming processed, high-sugar foods, and junk foods. For example, processed breads, donuts, candy bars, and soda have been staples for years. It doesn’t help many of these foods either are GMO or high in glyphosate (the main ingredient in the herbicide RoundUp), which is known to produce adverse gastrointestinal (and other harmful) effects.

He has reduced his intake of high-carb, sugary foods in recent years. In fact, he has significantly cut back on simple sugars because he finds they drain his energy and don’t help his digestion.

I suggested he continue cutting back on simple carbs and sugars, and that he add more fresh vegetables and high-quality proteins to his diet. I recommend organically grown and non-GMO foods.

I can’t say what caused Joe’s diverticulosis. But I can say that changes in his diet are necessary to support optimal health, as well as healing of damage to his digestive tract.

It doesn’t help that Joe takes several drugs, including a long-term antibiotic for a stubborn urinary tract infection, and a laxative (containing polyethylene glycol) for his constipation and diverticulosis. These drugs may help in the short term, but they far from ideal for long-term use.

Joe himself isn’t pleased with his need for drugs. He intends ultimately to stop them when possible.

He has been having trouble sleeping in recent years. I suspect this may be related to his troubles with his intestinal tract, dysbiosis, and possibly issues with his microbiome.

SUPPLEMENTATION

Joe sent me his supplement schedule and results from a few health tests to review. He has “nutrition-oriented” doctors whose advice he follows quite rigorously.

I reviewed his supplement schedule and health test results. His results include some in-depth genetic tests, which provide insights into potential health concerns, and practical advice for nutritional supplementation.

IMBALANCES CALL FOR FOUNDATIONAL NUTRITION

I saw glaring gaps in Joe’s supplement schedule. There are major imbalances in his supplement program. For example, I see no multivitamins or vitamin C/antioxidant formula, which are basic to the HPDI foundational program.

Indeed, for all the good elements, his program unfortunately is hit-or-miss in terms of providing a complete spectrum of essential nutrients.

On the upside, he’s been taking a few specific-nutrient supplements daily:

5,000 mg of vitamin D (25-hydroxy).

3,000 mg of Omega-3 (EPA/DHA) and 1,000 mg of flax seed oil.

He gets some coenzyme B vitamins:

2,000 mcg of a methyl folate (MTHF)

1,000 mcg of B12 as methylcobalamin daily.

Taking these standalone coenzyme B vitamins is good because test results indicate he has the heterozygous genotype for the MTHFR C677T (C/T) and MTHFR A1298C (A/C). The presence of both polymorphisms can result in significantly reduced activity of MTHFR potentially leading to reduced production of the active form of folate (L-methylfolate).

As his test results stated: “Reduced levels of L-methylfolate lead to decreased production of neurotransmitters, reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine, and reduced s-adenosylmethionie (SAMe) concentrations.”

GAPS: HIT OR MISS ON FOUNDATIONALS

I asked about his multivitamin and vitamin C intake. He said he takes them despite the fact they are absent from his supplement schedule. I supposed they were absent from his schedule because his doctors want to make sure he gets his vitamin D, folate, methylcobalamin, and essential fats, but aren’t too concerned about whether or not he takes a complete multivitamin, vitamin C/antioxidant formula, or complete B-complex vitamins.

Joe told me he takes a multivitamin, B-complex, and vitamin C supplement. But didn’t take all of them daily.  All three products came from a “big-box” store known for low prices.

Joe therefore consumed a few specific, advanced, medical-quality formulas at the direction of his doctors. Yet, he purchased low-end multivitamin, vitamin C, and B-complex products that can or should be the foundation of his supplement program.

His multivitamin was a low-potency formula providing only 3–500% of the daily value for most nutrients with many at exactly 100%. Not only is this multivitamin low-potency, but its forms are conventional (no coenzyme vitamins or advanced forms). Moreover, it is full of unnecessary additives and fillers like polyethylene glycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium benzoate.

His vitamin C was 500 mg. He didn’t take it every day and when he did, he took only one or two.

WHAT I DID FOR JOE

Joe and I talked about his situation. He agreed to receive a package of supplements. Actually, I attempted several years ago to help him get onto a foundational supplements program. He took some supplements and he definitely noticed a difference in how he felt. Yet, he wasn’t ready to take a complete system of high-quality supplements. He finally agreed to try the program.

I sent him a package of HPDI supplements. It included two foundational supplements: Hank & Brian’s Mighty Multi-Vite! (multivitamin) and PRO-C (vitamin C/antioxidant formula). I did not include essential fats because he already takes them. I will send Rejuvenate! PLUS superfood and Intestinal Rejuvenation Formula in a separate shipment.

Joe now takes the Mighty Multi-Vite! and PRO-C, as well as Myo-Mag (magnesium) daily. He is already noticing he needs less of his laxative, and has scaled back his dosage. He can see the day is coming when he can wean himself entirely of it. He has updated his supplement schedule to include all of his supplements, so he can better track his supplement intake and ensure consistency.

I also sent him a Warrior Sleep for his sleeping troubles, and a bottle of Restore, which may help his intestinal tract and problems related to it.

PRO-C foundational supplements vitamin c

PRO-C is one of HPDI’s premier vitamin C / antioxidant formulas.

In forthcoming blog posts I plan to document the status of Joe’s health, including his energy levels and subjective feelings about his health. We will see how foundational supplements help him.

Not everyone is as fortunate as as Joe to have a friend who will send supplements and more importantly, talk to him in depth about nutrition and the need for foundational supplements.

WHAT JOE CAN DO FOR HIMSELF

It is my hope that Joe will follow the foundational supplements program, regain some health, and continue to improve by remaining on the program with HPDI supplements. He can take on his foundational supplements program as a mission for his own long-term health.

I also hope Joe’s experience with HPDI supplements will be an example to others who may be in similar situations. This includes individuals who don’t know where to begin, and those who take a variety of supplements yet aren’t receiving a full complement of essential nutrients.

Others who may be in similar situations to Joe’s include those who take supplements as directed by their doctor, but whose supplement schedule is “hit-or-miss,” which I suspect is a lot of people. Or those taking low-potency multivitamins or B-complex vitamins or just 500 mg of vitamin C daily. Also those taking basic supplements sporadically or whenever they “feel like it.”

Joe is far from being alone in having significant gaps in his foundation of essential nutrients that support good health. His doctors missed those gaps despite their best intentions to provide him with advanced nutrients based on genetic testing to assess potential deficiencies. “Losing sight of the forest for the trees” can happen to the best of us. In fact, the average person’s nutrient profile is not unlike Joe’s in many respects. And like Joe’s situation, foundational supplements can help close the gaps.

FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS CAN LEAD TO BETTER HEALTH

There are many reasons I feel confident that HPDI foundational supplements will continue helping Joe. Not only am I not surprised he is noticing results, but also I’ve seen health improve in many (perhaps hundreds of) individuals when they begin a complete foundational supplements program, and then especially when they maintain it.

Good results are not surprising when the levels of nutrients increase from just 100% of the daily value for most nutrients to much higher levels.

Results improve over time when the body continues receiving high levels of essential nutrients.

Dietary supplements are generally non-toxic so there is little risk of problems when the body receives more than adequate nutrients to meet its needs.

And why take just the minimum? Minimum amounts of nutrients tend to perpetuate deficiencies when you consider factors like poor diet, increased oxidative stress, toxic exposures (leading to greater nutrient needs to support detoxification), and genetic factors (e.g., enzyme deficiencies).

multivitamins HPDI foundational supplements

HPDI Multivitamins include Mighty Multi-Vite!, Multi Two (caps and tabs), Mini Multi, and Chewable Kids Mighty-Multi!

HPDI FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS PROGRAM

The HPDI Foundational Supplements Program until recently consisted of four types of supplement:

• High-Potency Multivitamin

• Vitamin C / Antioxidant Formulas

• Essential Fatty Acids

• High-RNA Superfoods (providing dietary nucleic acids)

Just last month, HPDI revised the Foundational Supplements Program to include two additional types of supplements:

• Gut Health formulas (such as Restore)

• Hydrogen products (such as Megahydrate and Active H2)

For more information on the revised system, see Amending the HPDI Foundational Supplements Program (blog post) by Hank Liers, PhD.

All six of these types of formulas comprise the HPDI Foundational Supplements Program. It is our belief that these six types of formulas are foundational to health regardless of whether you use HPDI’s supplements or those of another company (as long as they are high-quality, high-potency, provide the proper forms, and do not contain unnecessary excipients or toxic ingredients).

The HPDI foundational supplement program is the result of many years of product formulation, evaluating scientific research, following the experience of end-users, feedback from doctors and other clients, and staying on the cutting-edge of nutritional science. HPDI is known for updating its formulas as new information becomes available regarding better forms of nutrients, or means form improving nutrient uptake or utilization.

HPDI FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

HPDI formulates four of the six types of formulas in the Foundational Supplements Program.

HPDI Multivitamins include: Hank & Brian’s Mighty Multi-Vite!, Multi Two (caps or tabs), Mini Multi (for the chemically sensitive), and the Kid’s Mighty Multi!

HPDI Vitamin C / Antioxidant formulas include: PRO-C, Ultimate Protector Nrf2 formula, Buffered C (tabs), and Buffered C (powder)

HPDI Essential Fatty Acids: Essential Fats Plus E

HPDI’s Rejuvenate! Superfoods include: Rejuvenate! Original (densely green), Rejuvenate! PLUS (lightly green), and Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs (no greens). See the Rejuvenate! side-by-side comparison.

HPDI foundational supplements are formulated by Dr. Hank Liers, PhD. Hank is known for formulas that utilize only the highest-purity and highest-quality ingredients, and for his emphasis on natural forms (e.g., coenzyme forms) best recognized and utilized by the body.

FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS ARE FUNDAMENTAL

Foundational supplements are the foundation for good health. That is why we call them foundational. This is also why we believe so strongly in providing a strong foundation of nutrients before recommending what we call enhancement formulas, specific-condition formulas, or other add-ons (such as a soil-based probiotic formula).

That is to say, a given individual will possibly have many requirements for nutrients specific to their needs. Such formulas may include magnesium, iodine, certain B vitamins like coenzyme folate (5-MTHF). An individual may also require formulas specific to certain issues, concerns, or organ systems, such as formulas targeting joint health, bone health, allergies, blood sugar, liver health, and others. In fact, HPDI formulates formulas specific to these needs.

Yet, before specific needs are addressed, or at least concurrently, HPDI believes that foundational nutrients must provide the base or foundation upon which all other nutrients, condition-specific formulas, or enhancement formulas rest.

One danger, as we saw with Joe’s supplement schedule before he started taking HPDI foundational supplements, was putting the cart before the horse. That is, finding a person in a situation where there are several or numerous advanced nutrients being taken. Yet, where the “base” is relatively weak due to low-potency supplements and/or lack of basic nutrients. In this type of situation, it is less likely that the addition of several advanced nutrients can make as much of a difference for health because key nutrients are missing.

Missing key nutrients prevents certain advanced nutrients or even higher levels of specific nutrients from doing their job because major imbalances can render those nutrients useless, less bioavailable, or unable to contribute what they could were there a sufficiency of the basic nutrients required to support all biochemical processes in the body. We have written much on this topic—please see the resources section (below) for more information.

The point is that without a plentiful supply of basic nutrients in ideal forms, which is exactly what is provided by foundational supplements (and almost never by diet alone), a person will remain vulnerable to many nutrient deficiencies. Nutrient deficiencies (especially when they are prolonged over time) can result in less than optimal health.

By simply providing optimal levels of all basic nutrients, foundational supplements support the body by covering its nutritional needs, not unlike insurance. Moreover, they are generally inexpensive (relative to conventional health care costs) even for the highest-quality supplements, such as HPDI formulas.

CONCLUSION

Foundational supplements remain fundamental for health. Nothing can replace them. Before starting single nutrients or condition-specific formulas, it is important to obtain a full complement of basic nutrients that support bodily function.

After basic nutrition is attained through foundational supplements, diet, and appropriate lifestyle changes, then other types of nutritional supplements (such as enhancement formulas and specific-condition formulas) may be added to form a complete nutritional supplement system.

Key Takeaways:

• More people are getting advanced forms of specific vitamins and minerals in supplement form, usually at the direction of their doctor or nutritionist

• Few people obtain a complete, high-potency multivitamin

• Fewer still consume high-quality forms of all basic nutrients (provided by good diet and foundational supplements)

• Adding a complete set of high-potency, foundational supplements (multivitamin, Vitamin C / antioxidant formula, essential fats, high-RNA superfoods), hydrogen, and gut health formulas) supports basic good health

• Poor dietary choices increase the need for nutritional supplements that can provide high levels of a wide range of essential nutrients

• Taking foundational supplements sporadically is not a good way to ensure you obtain adequate levels of the important nutrients you require daily

SOURCES & RESOURCES

Foundational Supplements Program

The Need for Foundational Supplements (.pdf)

HPDI BLOG ARTICLES

Amending the HPDI Foundational Supplements Program

Vitamin C / Antioxidants

PRO-C and Ultimate Protector – Comparison of Antioxidant Formulas

Questions and Answers about Ultimate Protector

The Amazing Healing Potential of Natural Nrf2 Activators

Ultimate Protector™: First Impressions

Ultimate Protector™ Brunswick Labs ORAC5.0™ Test Results

Preventing Free-Radical Damage Using Ultimate Protector™

Description and Comparison of ORAC Tests for Well Known Plant Ingredients and Ultimate Protector™

Ultimate Protector and the Role of Foundational Supplements for Health

Natural Phytochemical Nrf2 Activators for Chemoprevention

New Directions for Preventing Free Radical Damage

Ultimate Protector flyer (.pdf)

Review of Scientific Research on Oligomeric  Proanthocyanidins (OPC) by Dr. Hank Liers

Vitamin C – An Amazing Nutrient by Dr. Hank Liers

High-RNA Superfoods

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs: Ingredients for Optimal Nutrition

9 Things to Know About Rejuvenate!™ Superfoods

High-RNA Rejuvenate!™ Superfood

Rejuvenate! – The Original, High-RNA Superfood

Natural Phytochemical NRF2 Activators for Chemoprevention

DIETARY NUCLEIC ACIDS – DR. BENJAMIN S. FRANK, PART 1

DIETARY NUCLEIC ACIDS – DR. BENJAMIN S. FRANK, PART 2

Super-Tasty Morning Nutritional Drinks

PRODUCTS / SUPPLEMENTS

Hank & Brian’s Mighty Multi-Vite!

Multi Two (caps and tabs)

PRO-C (vitamin C / antioxidant formula)

Ultimate Protector™ Nrf2 Activator

Essential Fats Plus E

Rejuvenate!™ PLUS

Rejuvenate!™ (Original)

Rejuvenate!™ Berries & Herbs

Rejuvenate! Superfoods: Product Comparison

Hydrogen products

RESTORE

HPDI FOUNDATIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

Vitamin D3 PLUS

MYO-MAG (magnesium)

Warrior Sleep & Warrior products

Intestinal Rejuvenation Formula

Prescript-Assist probiotic (soil-based organisms)

CONTACT US:

You can reach HPDI by calling 1-800-228-4265, email Support(at)IntegratedHealth.com, or visit the retail website: IntegratedHealth.com

Health care professionals and resellers can apply for wholesale account, which includes access to the HPDI reseller website: HealthProductsDistributors.com. Email: Support(at)HealthProductsDistributors.com.

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NO DEATHS FROM ANY DIETARY SUPPLEMENT: US POISON DATA SYSTEM

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD dietary supplementFred Liers PhD dietary supplement dshea

The recently published annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers indicates no deaths from dietary supplements in 2013. The annual report was published in the journal Clinical Toxicology and was based on information collected by the US National Poison Data System (NPDS).

The report also indicated no deaths from any amino acid product or herbal product.

vitamin dietary supplement safety

No deaths were caused by any dietary supplement in 2013 according to US NPDS data.

The full text of the January 16, 2015 press release obtained from the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service (OMNS) follows. ~

 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, January 16, 2015

No Deaths from ANY Dietary Supplement

Zero Fatalities from Minerals, Vitamins, Amino Acids, Herbs, Homeopathic Remedies

by Andrew W. Saul, Editor

(OMNS Jan 16, 2015) There was not even one death caused by any dietary supplement in 2013, according to the most recent information collected by the US National Poison Data System. The new 251-page annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, published in the journal Clinical Toxicology (1), shows no deaths whatsoever from any dietary supplement.

Additionally, there were zero deaths from any amino acid or herbal product. This means no deaths at all from blue cohosh, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, kava kava, St. John’s wort, valerian, yohimbe, Asian medicines, ayurvedic medicines, or any other botanical. There were zero deaths from creatine, blue-green algae, glucosamine, chondroitin, melatonin, or any homeopathic remedy.

Furthermore, there were zero deaths from any dietary mineral supplement. This means there were no fatalities from calcium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, colloidal silver, selenium, iron, or multimineral supplements. Reported in the “Electrolyte and Mineral” category were two fatalities from the medical use of “Sodium and sodium salts.” These are not dietary supplements.

The US National Poison Data System is “the only comprehensive, near real-time, poisoning surveillance database in the United States. In 2013, poison professionals at the nation’s 55 poison centers managed about 2.2 million human poison exposures, with children younger than 6 accounting for about half of all poison exposure cases.”

No man, woman or child died from any nutritional supplement. Period.

If nutritional supplements are allegedly so “dangerous,” as the FDA, the news media, and even some physicians still claim, then where are the bodies?

 

References:

1. Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, McMillan N, Ford M. 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 31st Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology (2014), 52, p 1032-1283. ISSN: 1556-3650 print / 1556-9519 online. DOI: 10.3109/15563650.2014.987397.

The full text article is available for free download at http://www.aapcc.org/annual-reports/ . Minerals, herbs, amino acids and other supplements are in table 22B, pages 1247-1249.

2. http://www.aapcc.org/press/38/

 

Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: http://www.orthomolecular.org

Find a Doctor

To locate an orthomolecular physician near you: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml

The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource.

Editorial Review Board:

Ian Brighthope, M.D. (Australia)
Ralph K. Campbell, M.D. (USA)
Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
Damien Downing, M.D. (United Kingdom)
Michael Ellis, M.D. (Australia)
Martin P. Gallagher, M.D., D.C. (USA)
Michael Gonzalez, D.Sc., Ph.D. (Puerto Rico)
William B. Grant, Ph.D. (USA)
Michael Janson, M.D. (USA)
Robert E. Jenkins, D.C. (USA)
Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D. (USA)
Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
Erik Paterson, M.D. (Canada)
W. Todd Penberthy, Ph.D. (USA)
Gert E. Schuitemaker, Ph.D. (Netherlands)
Robert G. Smith, Ph.D. (USA)
Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)
Atsuo Yanagisawa, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)

Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D. (USA), Editor and contact person. Email: omns@orthomolecular.org. This is a comments-only address; OMNS is unable to respond to individual reader emails. However, readers are encouraged to write in with their viewpoints. Reader comments become the property of OMNS and may or may not be used for publication.

To Subscribe at no charge: http://www.orthomolecular.org/subscribe.html

OMNS archivehttp://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml

===

Read this press release on supplement safety on the OMNS website: http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v11n02.shtml

US National Poison Data System (NPDS): http://www.aapcc.org/data-system/

Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC): http://www.aapcc.org/annual-reports/

Journal of Clinical Toxicology: http://omicsonline.org/clinical-toxicology.php