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MYO-MAG MAGNESIUM & MALIC ACID – ENERGIZING FORMULA

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD myo-mag magnesium malic acid energizing formulaFred Liers PhD myo-mag magnesium malic acid energizing supplement

Got energy? That’s a big question. Many people are low on energy. A major cause of low energy is magnesium deficiency. In fact, studies show 50%–90% of people are deficient, often highly deficient. Magnesium boosts energy levels by feeding the body’s energy production system or Krebs cycle.

Myo-Mag— HPDI’s magnesium and malic acid formula — is designed to supercharge your energy production system to support a high energy lifestyle. Are you ready for what Myo-Mag can do for your energy? Well, it boosts energy, but does a lot more, too!

Getting enough magnesium is critical, of course. But it is equally important to get readily assimilable forms of magnesium and the synergistic nutrients required for its uptake and utilization. Myo-Mag provides optimal forms of magnesium and synergistic nutrients required to create energy (as ATP) for higher energy living. Myo-Mag feeds the body’s energy production system (Krebs cycle), which maximizes cellular energy. That is why users of Myo-Mag report far greater energy levels.

⚡ MYO-MAG FOR ENERGY – AND MUCH MORE ⚡

Myo-Mag supplies critical nutrients for energy production (as ATP) in the body. But it offers benefits far beyond boosting energy levels. Being a super magnesium formula, Myo-Mag optimizes all other beneficial effects of magnesium. In addition to energy production, magnesium is essential for muscle health, cardiovascular health, balancing calcium levels (and ensuring proper calcium uptake), as well as for proper function of more than 800 enzyme systems in the body.

⚡ MYO-MAG BENEFITS ⚡

ENERGYMyo-Mag supplies your cellular energy system with raw materials it can use immediately to produce energy for high vitality living. Myo-Mag can help you create energy fast—and naturally!

• MENTAL ENERGY – Just as Myo-Mag boosts physical energy, it can also boost mental energy. The energizing forms of magnesium and synergistic nutrients it provides create cellular energy the body can use for all purposes requiring energy.

MUSCLE RECOVERYMyo-Mag supports muscle health, muscle use, and muscle recovery. You might call Myo-Mag a muscle formula, and indeed “Myo” means “muscle” in Greek. Muscles that are properly nourished function well and are loose, not contracted, overly tight, or cramped. Muscles can benefit from Myo-Mag!

RELAXATION AND CALMING – In addition to being an “energy” production formula, Myo-Mag provides forms of magnesium and other nutrients that allow the body to relax. Muscle relaxation is a well known effect of magnesium. Also, the counterbalancing effect of magnesium on calcium in cells contributes to a relaxation effect. Too much calcium by itself (without being balanced) by magnesium can lead to muscle contraction and tension.

• GREATER SENSE OF WELL-BEINGMyo-Mag can provide an overall sense of well being. This is likely due both to the wide range of benefits and effects of magnesium (see list below) combined with the benefits of the synergistic nutrients it provides. For example, a combination of the known benefits of muscle relaxation, improved mood, and increased vitality can together contribute to an overall increased sense of well-being.

• CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH – The heart is a muscle and gain major benefits from the right forms of magnesium, like other muscles

• HEADACHES – The ingredients in Myo-Mag are known to help headaches, including migraine headaches

• MANY OTHER BENEFITS – Due to its status as an exceptional magnesium & malic acid formula, Myo-Mag provides all benefits associated with magnesium (see list below), but also supercharges these benefits due to the malic acid (malate), B vitamins, and other synergistic nutrients.

myo-mag magnesium malic acid energizing formula

⚡ MYO-MAG OVERVIEW ⚡

Myo-Mag is an advanced magnesium formula that supports metabolism, energy production (ATP), and optimal cellular function. It allows for rapid uptake and absorption of easily assimilated forms of magnesium. It also provides critical nutrients supporting energy production in the body. Because Myo-Mag rapidly boosts magnesium levels, individuals usually notice greater physical and mental energy, reduced fatigue, and often a greater sense of overall well being.

⚡ MAGNESIUM, MALIC ACID (MALATE), B VITAMINS, AND MORE ⚡

Myo-Mag contains ingredients participating in the production of ATP. One vegetarian capsule contains 100 mg of magnesium and over 300 mg of malic acid. Vitamin B1 is included as Thiamin HCl and vitamin B2 is included as both Riboflavin and Riboflavin 5′-phosphate. Also included are vitamin B6 in its pyridoxal 5′-phosphated coenzyme form, manganese (because high levels of magnesium can deplete the body of it), magnesium carbonate (a malic acid buffer), and glycine as the carrier for a portion of the magnesium and for the manganese.

Supplementing the diet with magnesium and malic acid may reverse conditions of low energy. Suggested daily amounts include 300–600 mg of magnesium and 1200–2400 mg of malic acid.

⚡ MYO-MAG CONSIDERATIONS & APPLICATIONS ⚡

There are several key nutrients needed by mitochondria to manufacture ATP in the body. These include oxygen, magnesium, food substrate, ADP, and inorganic phosphate, as well as Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, and Vitamin B6 in their phosphorylated (coenzyme) forms.

The body also requires malate (an important Krebs cycle intermediate) in order for most of these nutrients to function effectively in the process of ATP production. When adequate amounts of any of these nutrients are not present in the mitochondria, a vicious cycle can occur in which ATP is not created in amounts sufficient for proper cell function.

Insufficient amounts of ATP means that some B vitamins may not be adequately phosphorylated leading to improper metabolism and further reductions in ATP production. The much less efficient anaerobic production of ATP may be utilized to a greater extent. A balance point may be reached wherein the body produces only a fraction of the optimal amount of ATP. Under these conditions muscle weakness and fatigue may occur.

Vitamin B6 in its coenzyme form (pyridoxal-5’-phosphate) and magnesium are required for normal activity of malate dehydrogenase enzymes  involved in ATP production in the Krebs Cycle. In addition, the respiratory chain involved in ATP synthesis requires adequate amounts of the coenzyme  forms of B vitamins B1 and B2, which are the precursors of NAD and FAD. These two B vitamins, like B6, require a magnesium-dependent phosphate transfer reaction to become biologically active. Magnesium deficiency would therefore create a sluggish respiratory chain and a decreased efficiency in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Supplementing the diet with magnesium and malic acid boosts energy production and thereby can reverse conditions of low energy.

In “Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid,” Abraham and Flechas reported that supplementing the diet with magnesium and malic acid may reverse such conditions of low energy (Jrnl of Nutritional Medicine 1992 3: 49–59). The recommended daily amounts include 300–600 mg of magnesium and 1200–2400 mg of malic acid.

⚡ MAGNESIUM ⚡

Magnesium is a key ingredient in Myo-Mag which provides 100 mg per capsule in the form of magnesium malate. Magnesium plays a major role in energy production in the body. In particular, magnesium plays a critical role in key enzymatic reactions  for both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, which is the oxygen-dependent metabolic pathway that coverts glucose in to energy at ATP and NADH.

In order to appreciate the many benefits Myo-Mag offers, it helps to understand the effects and benefits of magnesium. Magnesium levels influence many physiological processes and functions. These include:

• Increases energy by greater production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in cells
• Supports production and function of over 800 enzyme systems in the body
• Relaxes muscles / reduces muscle tension
• Boosts vitality, endurance, and strength
• Improves cardiovascular / heart health (relaxes cardiac muscle)
• Relieves pain, including chronic pain
• Ideal for arthritis / fibromyalgia / joint pain
• Improves health of skin and mucous membranes
• Eases headaches and migraine headaches
• In sports medicine — replenishes Mg levels for energy (combats fatigue, and
soothes pain and sore muscles)
• Improves mood and reduces stress
• Increases memory and cognitive functions
• Boosts immune system
• Improves assimilation of calcium / builds stronger bones
• Balances calcium and magnesium levels in cells
• Proven antimicrobial and antiseptic
• Raises DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) levels naturally
• Eases menopause and premenstrual syndrome (pms)
• Supports healthy libido (and endocrine system)
• Anti-aging, rejuvenating, revitalizing
• Keeps cell membranes flexible
• Controls cholesterol production in the body
• Regulates blood sugar levels / needed for insulin production, transport, and
function in cells
• Supports antioxidant systems
Given the wide range of benefits conferred by magnesium on the human body, it becomes apparent that no level of deficiency is acceptable. Magnesium is simply critical for life and for health. It is far better to have more magnesium than less.
MYO-MAG contains three types of magnesium: magnesium malate, magnesium carbonate, and magnesium diglycinate. As noted, the malate form of magnesium offers the unique benefit of feeding the energy production system in the body. The magnesium carbonate in the formula acts as a buffering agent while magnesium glycinate is absorbed into the bloodstream thereby increasing absorption beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

⚡ MALIC ACID / MALATE ⚡

Myo-Mag provides malic acid via magnesium malate, which breaks down in the body into about 80% malic acid and 15% magnesium. Malic acid is a compound (molecular formula C4H6O5made by all living organisms. Malic acid contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and its name derives from the Latin word for apple. Esters and salts of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle, which produced energy (ATP) in the body.
According to Abraham and Flechas (1992): “Malate is the only metabolite of the citric acid cycle which correlates positively with physical activity.” They add: “Following endurance training of athletes, muscles were characterized by a 50% increase in the malate-aspartate redox shuttle enzymes, where malate plays a key role…When there is increased demand for ATP, there is also an increased demand and utilization of malate.”

⚡ MANGANESE ⚡

Myo-Mag includes manganese because high levels of magnesium can deplete manganese. The classes of enzymes that have manganese cofactors is large and includes oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, lectins, and integrins. The reverse transcriptases of many retroviruses (though not lentiviruses such as HIV) contain manganese. The best-known manganese-containing polypeptides may be arginase and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)

Manganese is an essential human dietary element. It is present as a coenzyme in several biological processes, which include macronutrient metabolism, bone formation, and free radical defense systems. It is a critical component in dozens of proteins and enzymes. The human body contains about 12 mg of manganese, mostly in the bones. The soft tissue remainder is concentrated in the liver and kidneys. In the human brain, the manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins, most notably glutamine synthetase in astrocytes.

⚡ MYO-MAG USAGE ⚡

Taking 1–3+ Myo-Mag provide nutrients that help the body create energy. However, taking 3–6 (or more) Myo-Mag daily would meet the need for supplementing with 300–600 mg of magnesium and 1200–2400 mg of malic acid that is known to reverse conditions of low energy. We recommend starting low (1-2 capsules) and then gradually increasing the dosage. Myo-Mag is contained in a vegetarian capsule to ensure rapid assimilation.

COMPOSITION: One (1) vegetarian capsule of Myo-Mag provides the following percentages of the Daily Value:

NUTRIENT AMOUNT % Daily Value
Magnesium (Mg malate, diglycinate, carbonate) 100 mg 24%
Malic Acid (Mg malate)
300 mg *
Manganese (Mn diglycinate) 5 mg 217%
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin HCl) 10 mg 633%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 8 mg 615%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin-5′-phosphate) 2 mg 154%
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate) 5 mg 294%
Glycine (Mg and Mn diglycinate) 160 mg *

* No established Daily Value

DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement take 1–3+ capsules daily, or as directed by a health care professional.

INGREDIENTS: MYO-MAG only contains the highest-quality USP grade magnesium malate, magnesium diglycinate, magnesium carbonate, manganese diglycinate, thiamin HCl, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, riboflavin-5′-phosphate, vegetable cellulose (capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, and silica.

MYO-MAG does not contain wheat, rye, oats, corn, barley, gluten, soy, egg, dairy, yeast, sugar, GMOs, sulfates, chlorides, wax, preservatives, colorings, or artificial flavorings.

⚡ CONCLUSION ⚡

Energy is important for life and health. And whether you realize it or not, large numbers of factors—some of which are beyond your control—conspire daily to rob you of energy. These factors may include low magnesium levels, stress to EMF exposure (like Wi-Fi or cell phone radiation), adverse dietary influences (like glyphosate/RoundUp), other chemical and/or environmental exposures, and even just lack of exercise. One of the easiest things to do is to take Myo-Mag to get the magnesium, malic acid, and synergistic nutrients you need to build greater energy levels. Get ready to blast off! ⚡

 

⚡ MYO-MAG RESOURCES ⚡

Myo-Mag Magnesium & Malic Acid Formula

HPDI Mineral Formulas

Myo-Mag on Amazon

HPDI Blog Articles

The Health Benefits of Oral Magnesium Using Myo-Mag by Dr. Hank Liers

Articles

Uses and Benefits of Magnesium Glycinate

Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection
(J Parenter Enteral Nutr Sep-Oct 1994;18(5):430-5.)

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HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS – ACTIVE H2 ULTRA and MEGAHYDRATE

Fred Liers PhD hydrogen supplements Active H2 Ultra MegahydrateSupplemental hydrogen is fast becoming essential in many people’s nutritional supplement regimens. Why? Because hydrogen offers significant health benefits, including excellent antioxidant protection, increased energy, faster recovery, and improved well-being. Who doesn’t want those benefits?

My favorite way to take hydrogen is to make hydrogen-infused water, or what I call a hydrogen “fizzy” drink. Two products I like best are Active H2 Ultra tablets and Megahydrate (available in powder and capsules). Active H2 Ultra provides molecular hydrogen (H2) and Megahydrate provides hydride (H-). Both are great standalone formulas, yet work well together as each provides unique means to quench free radicals effectively.

MAKE “FIZZY” HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER WITH ACTIVE H2 ULTRA

Drinking H2-rich water is an easy and effective method for obtaining hydrogen, according to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. Making hydrogen-infused water is simple and convenient, as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 Ultra tablets, Megahydrate powder, and Megahydrate capsules.

My favorite hydrogen drink contains both Active H2 Ultra and Megahydrate. I take these products separately at times, but find it easier to take them together—and gain the benefits of both immediately.

Active H2 Ultra Megahydrate

Active H2 Ultra tablets and Megahydrate powder work together for major antioxidant power.

INGREDIENTS – HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

• 1 Scoop Megahydrate powder (500 mg) or 1 Megahydrate capsule (600 mg)

• 1 Tablet of Active H2 Ultra

• 8–16 Ounces of Purified Water

DIRECTIONS: Put one scoop of Megahydrate powder (or open one capsule) into your container of water. Let sit for about 30–60 seconds. Drop in one Active H2 Ultra tablet. Allow it to effervesce for one minute or until fully dissolved. Drink immediately. For best assimilation, preferably take on an empty stomach at least 10–15 minutes before food. Wait one hour after eating to drink hydrogen-infused water.

Note: Do not wait long after effervesce stops to drink the water because hydrogen will escape into the air. Alternatively you can cap the container with a lid, and this will allow the hydrogen to last a while longer.

Molecular hydrogen is sufficiently small to pass through glass, so use a metal container if you plan to cap it. If you drink immediately, then the type container you use won’t matter. I personally prefer a glass mason jar. This allows me to see the tablet dissolve, but also means drinking it immediately.

I make 1–3 hydrogen fizzy drinks daily, first in the morning and then in the afternoon, but almost never in the evening as it can be energizing. I drink hydrogen water on an empty stomach. I gain a significant energy boost, but also other benefits, including improved athletic performance, faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

I highly recommend you try hydrogen supplements for yourself, and then consider them for your clients or patients. Our experience is that most people are pleasantly surprised by the results they get from hydrogen supplements, especially if they have a need for exceptional free-radical defense, or stand to benefit from the proven effects of hydrogen (see list below).

You will want to continue taking hydrogen supplements regularly because the benefits are so significant, especially over time. Let the power of hydrogen starting working for you.

Active H2 Ultra is a fast-effervescing tablet.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN BACKGROUND

More than 1,000 scientific studies indicate molecular hydrogen offers therapeutic potential in 170 disease models, and every organ of the body, according to the Molecular Hydrogen Institute.

Hydrogen is an antioxidant. It is also an extremely small molecule that can penetrate even the tiniest cellular compartments. This helps explain how hydrogen works to offer free-radical defense throughout the entire body.

The medical and scientific literature is clear. Hydrogen’s modes of action:

H2 reduces oxidative stress as a selective antioxidant and by maintaining homeostatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.

H2, like other gaseous signaling molecules (i.e. NO, CO, H2S), appears to have cell signal-modulating activity affording it with anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-allergy benefits.

We include hydrogen supplements in HPDI’s system of Foundational Supplements. In fact, hydrogen formulas as just one of six foundational supplements. We consider hydrogen a “secondary” foundational supplement usually to be added to a supplement regimen after the four primary ones: multivitamins, antioxidant & vitamin C formulas, essential fatty acids, and superfoods high in dietary nucleic acids (i.e., Rejuvenate! superfoods).

THERAPEUTIC USES OF HYDROGEN

The scientific literature discusses the use of molecular hydrogen for many clinical applications, including:

• Metabolic Syndrome including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity

• Ischemia/reperfusion injuries, including cerebral and myocardial infarctions, organ transplants, post-cardiac arrest

• Neuroprotection, including applications for dementia, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and anesthesia

• Inflammation, including applications for polymicrobial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, and bowel diseases

• Mitochondrial diseases

• Hemodialysis and ventilation

• Aging, including cognitive decline

• Exercise, including applications for fatigue, lactic acid, recovery, and oxidative stress related to heavy exercise

Side effects of cancer therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy

• Many other benefits

(Source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation)

HOW HYDROGEN WORKS

According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, there are three ways molecular hydrogen exerts positive health effects:

1.  Molecular hydrogen easily diffuses into subcellular compartments where it scavenges cytotoxic oxygen radicals, thereby protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against oxidative stress.

2.  Molecular hydrogen triggers activation or upregulation of additional antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and others) and/or cytoprotective proteins of the body.

3.  Molecular hydrogen may be a novel signaling molecule that alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.

Notably, two of these three mechanisms of action involve antioxidant activity. Hydrogen is one of the best antioxidants for all the reasons discussed, and we believe it acts synergistically with other antioxidants, including Vitamin C, glutathione, and Nrf2 activators (like those in HPDI’s Ultimate Protector).

MEGAHYDRATE MAKES MOLECULAR HYDROGEN BETTER

Why add Megahydrate to your hydrogen-infused water? Because Megahydrate provides hydride, the negative anion of hydrogen, or H-. Thus, a tiny scoop of Megahydrate provides vast quantities of electrons available to quench free radicals. Unlike molecular hydrogen, which dissipates quickly into the air, and therefore must be consumed immediately, hydride rich water (about -700 ORP!) may last for three weeks in an active state. That is a good reason to take Megahydrate by itself whether or not you already use it with molecular hydrogen in your hydrogen “fizzy” drink (see recipe above).

Megahydrate Active H2 Ultra

Megahydrate (powder or capsule) provides hydride (H-) for free radical defense.

The interesting thing about H- is that after it gives up its electron, it becomes simply “H” or atomic hydrogen. It then looks to pair up with another “H” to become H2, which is molecular hydrogen. In this way, Megahydrate not only gives you large quantities of stable H- and potent antioxidant capabilities, but also then creates molecular hydrogen in your body. This means it becomes a different kind of antioxidant, H2, which is therapeutic in itself.

By adding Megahydrate to your hydrogen-infused water (as described above), you create a unique “double whammy” drink in which you maximize the powers of hydrogen (H2 and H-) to create and maintain good health.

Note: Megahydrate powder is more cost effective than Megahydrate capsules, which must be opened into the fizzy drink. However, Megahydrate capsules are convenient for traveling and are easy to take by themselves. I keep both available, so I can use either one depending on my daily needs.

hydrogen supplements active h2 ultra

DRINKING HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

Drinking H2-rich water is an easy, effective method for obtaining hydrogen according to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. Drinking hydrogen-infused water is convenient as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 Ultra tabletsMegahydrate capsules, and Megahydrate powder.

As noted, I make 1–3 hydrogen drinks daily using Megahydrate and Active H2 Ultra. I drink them on an empty stomach. I enjoy a significant energy boost, which helps power me through my day. I gain other benefits, including improved athletic performance, noticeably faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

The nice thing about hydrogen supplements is how flexibly you can use them. While I typically prefer to make hydrogen-infused “fizzy” drinks in water, I will often sip Megahydrate-infused water by itself during the day or even in the evening (as it is less energizing than molecular hydrogen).

Megahydrate does not immediately lose its potency in water, so it can be casually sipped. Also, if you’re traveling or on-the-go, you can simply swallow a Megahydrate capsule by itself. Finally, you can carry Active H2 Ultra tablets with you wherever you go, and add them to water whenever convenient for you.

http://www.integratedhealth.com/supplements/hydrogen-products.html

Megahydrate and Active H2 Ultra creates an ultra-healthy hydrogen fizzy drink.

TRY HYDROGEN!

Try hydrogen supplements for yourself. Then consider recommending them to client, patients, friends, and family. Most people welcome the results from hydrogen. This is especially true if they need exceptional free-radical defense — and who doesn’t? We can all stand to benefit from the proven health benefits hydrogen uniquely provides.

After you try hydrogen, you will want to continue taking it. Hydrogen-infused “fizzy” water can become your go-to drink. Remember, hydrogen works best when taken consistently and daily!

 

HYDROGEN RESOURCES

Hydrogen Articles

Hydrogen Supplements – Make Hydrogen Drinks

Hydrogen for Optimal Health

Wonders of Molecular Hydrogen

Molecular Hydrogen (H2) at the Forefront of Health Research

The Science Behind MegaHydrate by Hank Liers, PhD

Hydrogen Supplements

Active H2 Ultra tablets

Megahydrate capsules

Megahydrate powder

HPDI hydrogen products

Other Hydrogen Resources

Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

hydrogen supplements megahydrate active H2

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HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS – MAKE HYDROGEN DRINKS

Fred Liers PhD hydrogen supplements drinks H2I love hydrogen supplements. So should you. Since starting my morning—and often afternoon—routine of making hydrogen drinks in the kitchen, I have come to appreciate the surge of energy lasting many hours, as well as a host of other benefits.

Most of all, I am amazed how easy hydrogen supplements are to use considering how much they do for you, and how well they complement the supplements I already take—seeming to make them all more effective.

I typically use one or two effervescing Active H2 Ultra tablets in 8–16 ounces of water. Then I like to open one Megahydrate capsule directly in the effervescing water. I wait about 90 seconds to let the tablets stop “fizzing” and then I drink immediately. Allowing the drink to sit for a few minutes is okay, but the sooner you drink it, the higher the concentration of hydrogen.

Note: I used Vital Reaction tablets in this video, but my preferred product is the new, improved Active H2 Ultra (tablets) which dissolves in less than one minute—faster than other hydrogen tablet formulas—thereby preserving more hydrogen in the water.

HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS ARE EFFECTIVE

Hydrogen supplements are among the newer, cutting-edge nutritional formulas available to support optimal health. More than 500 scientific articles now support the therapeutic potential hydrogen for essentially every organ system and in 150 human disease models, according to the non-profit Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. In fact, hydrogen is rapidly incorporated into medicine, sports medicine, peak performance, elite fitness, and more.

Hydrogen is an antioxidant. It is also an extremely small molecule that can penetrate even the tiniest cellular compartments. This helps explain how hydrogen works to offer free-radical defense throughout the entire body.

The medical and scientific literature is clear. Hydrogen’s modes of action:

  • H2 reduces oxidative stress as a selective antioxidant and by maintaining homeostatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.
  • H2, like other gaseous signaling molecules (i.e. NO, CO, H2S), appears to have cell signal-modulating activity affording it with anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-allergy benefits.

We include hydrogen supplements in HPDI’s system of Foundational Supplements. In fact, hydrogen formulas as just one of six foundational supplements. We consider hydrogen a “secondary” foundational supplement usually to be added to a supplement regimen after the four primary ones: multivitamins, antioxidant & vitamin C formulas, essential fatty acids, and superfoods high in dietary nucleic acids (i.e., Rejuvenate! superfoods).

HYDROGEN MEDICINE

The scientific literature discusses the use of molecular hydrogen for many clinical applications, including:

• Metabolic Syndrome including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity

• Ischemia/reperfusion injuries, including cerebral and myocardial infarctions, organ transplants, post-cardiac arrest

• Neuroprotection, including applications for dementia, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and anesthesia

• Inflammation, including applications for polymicrobial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, and bowel diseases

• Mitochondrial diseases

• Hemodialysis and ventilation

• Aging, including cognitive decline

• Exercise, including applications for fatigue, lactic acid, recovery, and oxidative stress related to heavy exercise

Side effects of cancer therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy

• Many other benefits

(Source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation)

HOW HYDROGEN WORKS

According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, there are three ways molecular hydrogen exerts positive health effects.

1. Molecular hydrogen easily diffuses into subcellular compartments where it scavenges cytotoxic oxygen radicals, thereby protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against oxidative stress.

2. Molecular hydrogen triggers activation or upregulation of additional antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and others) and/or cytoprotective proteins of the body.

3. Molecular hydrogen may be a novel signaling molecule that alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.

hydrogen supplements Active H2 Ultra tablets

Active H2 Ultra hydrogen supplement (60 tablets).

HYDROGEN IS SAFE

Molecular hydrogen exhibits great safety, and it is regarded as safe for use in the body. It is shown no toxicity even in high concentrations.

Safety standards have long been established for high concentrations of hydrogen for inhalation largely because of the history of high-pressure H2 gas used in deep-water diving gas mixtures for preventing decompression sickness.

Notably, H2 gas combusts only at temperatures higher than 527 °C, and it explodes by chain reaction with oxygen (O2) only in the range of H2 concentration (4–75%, vol/vol).

Molecular hydrogen is used for medical applications safely by several ingestion methods including inhalation of 1–4% hydrogen gas, for example, which exhibits great effectiveness. All these factors mean that hydrogen is safe, easy-to-use, and effective for therapeutic purposes.

DRINKING HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, drinking H2-rich water is the easiest, and often the most effective, method for obtaining hydrogen.

Drinking hydrogen-infused water is easy to do, and convenient as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 tablets and Megahydrate capsules.

As noted, I make one or two hydrogen drinks daily, first in the morning and then often again in the afternoon. I drink them on an empty stomach. I enjoy a significant energy boost, which helps power me through my day. I gain other benefits, including improved athletic performance, noticeably faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

I highly recommend you try hydrogen supplements for yourself, and then consider them for your clients or patients. Our experience is that most people are pleasantly surprised by the results they get from hydrogen supplements, especially if they have a need for exceptional free-radical defense, or stand to benefit from the proven effects hydrogen uniquely provides (see list above).

Once you try hydrogen, you will want to continue taking it because the benefits are so significant. Let the power of hydrogen starting working for you on a daily basis!

hydrogen supplements Megahydrate

Dr. G. Patrick Flanagan’s Megahydrate (60 capsules).

HYDROGEN RESOURCES

Hydrogen Articles

Hydrogen for Optimal Health

Wonders of Molecular Hydrogen

Molecular Hydrogen (H2) at the Forefront of Health Research

The Science Behind MegaHydrate by Hank Liers, PhD

Hydrogen Products

Active H2 Ultra tablets

Megahydrate capsules

Other Hydrogen Resources

Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

hydrogen supplements megahydrate active H2

Hydrogen supplements like Megahydrate and Active H2 are foundational in the HPDI supplement system.

THE TRUTH ABOUT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

The Truth About Essential Fatty Acids

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD essential fatty acidsMany in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.

BACKGROUND

Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.

Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.


essential fatty acids

Figure 1 – Basic diagram of fatty acids structure

The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.

Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

FATTY ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS

The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

essential fatty acids

Figure 2 – fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body

The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).

In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.

EICOSANOIDS/PROSTAGLANDINS

Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their “enhanced” derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.

Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.

Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.

Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in “fight or flight” (stress) situations, – the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.

Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.

It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.

Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.

Essential Fats

Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS – PATHWAYS

The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

essential fatty acids

Figure 3 – Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body

The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.

RESEARCH ON ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.

Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. “Enhanced forms” are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.

In Chapkin’s research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE

Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).

Essential Fats Plus E

ESSENTIAL FATS PLUS E IS A HIGHLY ADVANCED ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS SUPPLEMENT
OFFERING SPECIAL BENEFITS:

  1. UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
  2. BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
  3. FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
  4. ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!

COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.

NUTRIENT AMOUNT % Daily Value†
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
360 mg *
DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
240 mg *
GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid 18:3 omega 6)
(from 450 mg of cold pressed borage seed oil)
90 mg *
Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil) 24 IU 81%
Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
(from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
28.8 mg *

* No established Daily Value
† Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet

IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
• Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
• Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
• Mediate Immune Response
• Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
• Dilate or constrict blood vessels
• Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
• Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
• Regulate the rate at which cells divide
• Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
• Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
• Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
• Regulate nerve transmission

GENETIC TESTING AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.

We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.

CONCLUSION

The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.

REFERENCES

The following includes abstracts of Chapkin’s published research on essential fatty acids.

REFERENCE 1

Chapkin RS Somers SD Erickson KL

Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid.

In: Lipids (1988 Aug) 23(8):766-70

Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.

Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.

 

REFERENCE 2

Chapkin RS Carmichael SL

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses.

In: Lipids (1990 Dec) 25(12):827-34

This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.

 

REFERENCE 3

Fan YY Chapkin RS

Mouse peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E1 synthesis is altered by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

In: J Nutr (1992 Aug) 122(8):1600-6

The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).

 

REFERENCE 4

Fan YY Chapkin RS Ramos KS

Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro.

In: J Nutr (1996 Sep) 126(9):2083-8

This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

BOOKS

  1. Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.