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pH ADJUST COFFEE – MAKE ALKALINE COFFEE

Fred Liers PhD pH Adjust coffeeToday I show how to use pH ADJUST Alkalinizing Formula to make coffee alkaline. When pH Adjust is added to coffee, it rapidly changes from an acidic pH level to an alkaline pH level.

When you drink alkaline coffee, you are helping your body keep the healthy pH level of 7.34–7.45 it strives to maintain. Moreover, by changing to an alkaline state from an acidic state, you avoid health issues known to be associated with acidosis or ongoing, highly acidic pH levels.

pH ADJUST makes an already health-giving beverage into an alkaline-forming powerhouse supporting your best heath and brain performance. pH Adjust also effectively increases pH when used in water, juices, smoothies, or your favorite beverage.

pH ADJUST works by providing key minerals potassium (bicarbonate and glycinate) and magnesium (carbonate), as well as some sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) that act synergistically to boost pH levels in the body. HPDI recommends users measure pH using litmus paper to accurately test their pH levels.

Ideally your body pH is 7.35–7.45. Coffee itself is typically acidic with pH levels of about 5.0 to 6.0. pH Adjust therefore is an ideal supplement for adding into coffee to increase the pH of the coffee you drink and thereby increase your pH levels.

WHAT IS pH ADJUST?

pH ADJUST is an alkalinizing formula (powder) that is designed to increase pH levels in the body rapidly and effectively for good health.

Here is how we describe pH ADJUST on the label: “Alkalinizing Formula, 250 gm – Alkalinize with Potassium Bicarbonate, Magnesium Carbonate, Potassium Glycinate, and Sodium Bicarbonate”

pH ADJUST Features and Benefits

• Alkalinize with Potassium and Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Carbonate

• Helps Counteract Overly Acidic Conditions; Increases pH Levels in the Body

• Balanced Supplemental Minerals; Unique 3:1 Potassium to Sodium Ratio Improves Taste and Reduces Salt Intake

• Tastes Good – Easy to Use Fluffy Powder

• 250 One-Gram Servings Per Container (250 grams)

• Suitable for Vegetarians & Vegans; Gluten-Free

pH ADJUST may be used to assist in overly acidic conditions in the digestive tract, blood, and kidneys; increase salivary and urinary pH to healthy levels; and to supplement the body with the minerals potassium, magnesium, and sodium.

INGREDIENTS: pH ADJUST contains (in powder form): potassium bicarbonate, magnesium carbonate, potassium glycinate, and sodium bicarbonate.

Each one gram serving (about ¼ tsp) contains about 300 mg of bicarbonate, 260 mg of carbonate, 133.4 mg of potassium ((from KHCO3 & glycinate), 99.1 mg of magnesium (from MgCO3), 48.1 mg of sodium (from NaHCO3) and 100 mg of glycine.

DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement, take ¼ tsp in 4–8 ounces of purified water preferably away from food, or as directed by a health care professional. For extremely acidic conditions, try 4–10 doses per day, depending on acidity level. Use pH paper to ensure pH levels remain balanced, and do not become too alkaline (alkalosis may occur above pH 8.2).

TEST pH LEVELS: The best way to test pH levels is to use litmus paper, which HPDI offers in rolls (Hydrion brand) for this purpose. You can test both salivary and urinary pH. Advantages of pH paper include rapid results, ease of use, and cost effectiveness.

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT pH ADJUST

pH ADJUST is fluffy white powder that mixes into water, juices, other liquids, and foods. It acts rapidly to raise pH levels in the body. It is easy to use, mild-tasting, and highly effective for balancing pH levels. It is gluten-free, non-GMO, vegan/vegetarian, and contains no artificial ingredients.

NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS

The minerals potassium, sodium, and magnesium are key substances that are involved in many important functions in the body. When combined in bicarbonates (potassium & sodium), carbonates (magnesium), and glycinate (potassium) these chemicals can help to adjust and balance pH levels that are crucial to body function.

pH ADJUST provides a 3:1 ratio of potassium to sodium. This ratio keeps potassium levels relatively high with respect to sodium. The processed food diets with a high protein and low vegetable content consumed by many people in the US and elsewhere produce conditions in the body of acidity. This in turn leads to decreased oxygenation of our cells and a greater amount of anaerobic processes in metabolism. This, in turn, leads in inadequate ATP (energy) production and the presence of unwelcome anaerobic cells and organisms.

BICARBONATE

Bicarbonate is a major element in our body. Secreted by the stomach, it is necessary for digestion. When ingested, for example, with mineral water, it helps buffer lactic acid generated during exercise and additionally reduces the acidity of dietary components. Additionally, it has a preventive effect on dental cavities. Each ¼ tsp of pH ADJUST contains about 300 mg of bicarbonate.

Bicarbonate is present in all body fluids and organs and plays a major role in the acid-base balances in the human body. The first organ where food, beverages and water stay in our body is the stomach. The mucus membrane of the human stomach has 30 million glands which produce gastric juice containing not only acids, but also bicarbonate. The flow of bicarbonate in the stomach amounts from about 24 mg/hr for a basal output to about 73 mg/hr for a maximal output.

Thus, at least half a gram of bicarbonate is secreted daily in our stomach. This rate of gastric bicarbonate secretion is 2–10% of the maximum rate of acid secretion. In the stomach, bicarbonate participates in a mucus-bicarbonate barrier regarded as the first line of the protective and repair mechanisms. On neutralization by acid, carbon dioxide is produced from bicarbonate.

One serving (about ¼ tsp) of pH ADJUST contains about 300 mg of bicarbonate.

CARBONATE

pH ADJUST contains about 260 mg of carbonate (and 99 mg of Mg) in the form of magnesium carbonate. Magnesium carbonate is used as an antacid that gets converted to Magnesium Chloride (MgCl) and CO2 by stomach acid. MgCl is a well absorbed form of magnesium.

TRY pH ADJUST IN YOUR COFFEE

We strongly recommend trying pH Adjust in your coffee (or ketogenic coffee) to help alkalinize the body rapidly. Many people gain major benefits from drinking this simple, easy-to-use formula that is highly effective for raising pH levels. Beyond coffee, it works well in other drinks! Like water, teas, juices, or smoothies. Try pH Adjust and see how effectively it can alkalinize you.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

BUY pH ADJUST: http://www.integratedhealth.com/ph-adjust.html

pH Test Paper (Hydrion): http://www.integratedhealth.com/ph-paper.html

YOUTUBE VIDEOS

KETO COFFEE VIDEO: https://youtu.be/yzyVbFD_JVA
“How to Make Keto Coffee with pH Adjust – Alkalinizing Coffee”

HOW TO USE PH ADJUST ALKALINIZING FORMULA: https://youtu.be/kuP2BuvMSXA

HOW TO MAKE LEMONADE AND USE pH ADJUST: https://youtu.be/deF7BZcFtEs

BLOG ARTICLES

Alkalizine with Lemonade Diet and pH Adjust

Got Potassium?

Racing and Recovery with pH Adjust Alkalinizing Formula

Alkalinize Rapidly Using pH Adjust

pH Adjust Alkalinizing Formula – New Product!

BOOKS & ARTICLES

Acid-alkaline balance: role in chronic disease and detoxification
(Altern Ther Health Med, 13(4):62-5)

Acid & Alkaline by Herman Aihara

Bicarb Magical Mineral Supplement by Dr. Mark Sircus, Ac, OMD

REFERENCE

The Acid Alkaline Food Guide
by Dr. Susan Brown and Larry Trieviei, Jr.

Potassium Intake of the US Population (PDF)
(NHANES Food Surveys Research Group, USDA)

Potassium: Health Benefits, Recommended Intake

List of acid-forming and alkaline forming foods

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REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS – SUPERFOOD FORMULA UPDATED

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs superfoodToday I talk about my REJUVENATE!™ BERRIES & HERBS high-RNA superfood. I designed it to be a super-delicious, intensely berry flavored superfood with no greens. I put in real organic berries—BLUEBERRY, STRAWBERRY, RASPBERRY, and CRANBERRY—so it bursts with true berry flavors! I recently updated the formula, so it is is more delicious and nutritious than ever.

REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS – A COMPLETE SUPERFOOD

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is a delicious high-RNA (390 mg), high-protein (14.6 g) (organic pea and organic rice), high-antioxidant (ORAC value of 14,000+), high fiber (13 g) superfood with a creamy smoothness and rich berry flavor that tastes beyond great! It also boosts health with a complete multivitamin-multimineral sub-formula and important cell-protective herbs (herbal complex) that includes ginger, dandelion, burdock, turmeric, green tea extract, astragalus, and many other health-building herbs.

How to use Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs? Just mix in water, juices, nut milks, or smoothies to create a drink with superb health benefits. Or use it creatively in foods, such as nut butters, salads, fruits, sauce/dressings, or desserts. It tastes so good, some people like to eat it by itself—or mixed in a little purified water.

rejuvenate berries herbs

HEALTHY AND HIGH-RNA BY DESIGN

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is among HPDI’s premier high-RNA superfoods. That is, Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is one of three Rejuvenate! superfoods, which are the world’s first—and only—dedicated high-RNA superfoods. High-RNA nutrition means high in dietary nucleic acids, which Dr. Benjamin S. Frank considers to be essential nutrients, like vitamins and minerals (Dietary Nucleic Acid Nutrition & Therapy). Dr. Frank’s studies demonstrate many benefits of nucleic acids, including: greater energy, endurance, functional strength, easier breathing (anti-anoxic effect), as well as cardiovascular benefits and cosmetic benefits (smoother skin and a more youthful appearance).

Highlights of Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs:

• Delicious Berry Flavor Bursts with Real Organic Berries!
• Powerful Organic and Wildcrafted Cell-Protective Herbs
• High ORAC Value (~14,270 units)
• 390 mg Dietary Nucleic Acids (RNA/DNA) from Vegetarian Sources
• Multiple Prebiotics Supporting your Microbiome
• Gluten Free, Vegan/Vegetarian, No Artificial Ingredients
• Mixes Well with other Rejuvenate!™ Superfoods

My updated formula (as of 12/2018) features, per serving:

– 2.6 g more protein (14.6 g total)
– Very little sugar (1.2 g total)
– 7.0 g more fiber (13 g total)
– 100 mg of organic BiAloe® aloe vera gel powder with over 18% acemannan
– 700 mcg of folate as 5-MTHF (natural, coenzyme folate)
– A smooth & delicious taste (even better than before!)

Given all the upgrades I recently made to the formula, I certainly hope you will give it a try. I’m so happy with it, and I use it daily. Berries & Herbs hardly feels (or tastes!) like a nutritional supplement. But believe me, there are few superfoods anywhere that provide as much nutrition—or nutrient density!

HIGHEST QUALITY INGREDIENTS – INCLUDING ORGANIC AND WILDCRAFTED

To give you a better idea of the high-quality ingredients I put into Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs, check out this complete list of ingredients:

INGREDIENTS: REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS contains: pea protein*, rice protein*, flax seed powder*, rice bran solubles, d-ribose, cranberry powder*, blueberry powder*, raspberry powder*, strawberry powder*, nutritional yeast, sunflower lecithin, inulin (from chicory root), broccoli sprouts powder*, mannitol, xylitol* (from hardwood), magnesium malate, VitaBerry® Plus† (from freeze dried wild blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, prune, cherry, wild bilberry, whole grape powders, resveratrol, and quercetin), l-lysine hydrochloride, mixed berry flavoring* (on gum acacia), vanilla flavoring* (on gum acacia), RNA (from yeast), magnesium ascorbate, chlorella growth factor (CGF), burdock root powder*, astragalus powder*, turmeric root powder*, ginger root powder*, digestive multienzyme complex, choline bitartrate, malic acid, dulse*, kelp*, aloe vera* (BiAloe® concentrate), n-acetyl-l-cysteine, rutin, milk thistle extract, green tea extract, licorice root powder*, dandelion root powder*, rhodolia extract, inositol, biotin, stevia leaf extract, alpha lipoic acid, d-alpha tocopheryl succinate, niacinamide (Vit. B3), whole grape extract, high-gamma mixed tocopherols, phylloquinone (Vit. K1), immune assist mushroom extract, pantothenic acid, resveratrol, methylcobalamin (Vit. B12), pyridoxal-5’-phospate (Vit. B6), thiamin diphosphate (Vit. B1), riboflavin-5’-phosphate (Vit. B2), l-selenomethionone, cholecalciferol (Vit. D3), and calcium L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate.

*Organic ingredient
†VitaBerry Plus® is a registered trademark of VDF Futureceuticals, Inc.

Rejuvenate berries and herbs nutrition facts table

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is available from Health Products Distributors, Inc.:

Try Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs  (organic and wildcrafted berries & herbs)

You may also like: Rejuvenate! PLUS (light, sweet green superfood)

There are three Rejuvenate! superfoods. Which one is best for you? See our Rejuvenate!™ comparison page.

BLOG ARTICLE:

TASTY SMOOTHIE WITH REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS by Fred Liers

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TASTY SMOOTHIE WITH REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS

Fred Liers PhD rejuvenate! berries & herbsToday I make a tasty smoothie with the new, improved REJUVENATE!™ BERRIES & HERBS superfood. In fact, Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is likely the most delicious among HPDI’s Rejuvenate! superfoods, as it contains for types of real organic berries: Blueberries, Strawberries, Raspberries, and Cranberries. This uber-berry superfood was born for smoothies.

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs is a uniquely healthy superfood that not only tastes amazingly good, but its high berry content gives it an ultra-high antioxidant value (ORAC) of 14,270 units per serving—an exceedingly high ORAC value compared to typical “superfood” formulas.

Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs provides 14.6 gm of organic protein (including organic pea and organic rice). It includes a potent cell-protective herbal complex (including green tea extract, ginger, turmeric, astragalus, burdock, dandelion, and rhodiola). In addition, it contains a built-in multivitamin sub-formula including coenzyme vitamins and other highly assimilable forms of important micronutrients.

I especially love Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs because my father Dr. Hank Liers formulated it to provide the most dietary nucleic acids per serving—390 mg (dietary RNA/DNA)—the most per serving in any Rejuvenate! superfood. Sources of dietary nucleic acids in Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs include nutritional yeast, yeast extracts, and CGF (chlorella growth factor).

Dietary nucleic acids are proven to provide significant benefits for health. Studies by pioneering nucleic acid researcher Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD indicate effects such as greater endurance, easier breathing (anti-anoxic effect), increased energy (ATP production), improved functional strength, warmer body temperature (e.g., cold resistance), and other effects. Dr. Frank asserts that dietary nucleic acids are essential nutrients, not unlike vitamins and minerals (Dietary Nucleic Acid Nutrition & Therapy).

rejuvenate berries & herbs

Considering all the benefits conferred by dietary nucleic acids, you really cannot go wrong by consuming more of them daily. And Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs helps you do that by providing nearly 400 mg of dietary RNA/DNA per serving. That is a therapeutic dose which means you stand to gain all the benefits they confer. Depending on who you are and your health status, that could mean a lot in terms of helping you be healthier.

In sum, Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs uniquely offers: 1) High RNA (dietary nucleic acids), 2) High Antioxidant Levels, 3) Herbal Sub-Formula, 4) High Protein, 5) Built-in Multivitamin, and 6) SUPER TASTE—that is super delicious in your superfood smoothies.

You just cannot get all these benefits in ANY other superfood, including other Rejuvenate! superfoods, each of which is formulated with a specific purpose. For example, Rejuvenate! PLUS is designed to provide significant levels of greens (think chlorella and spirulina), but lacks berries. Within its berry bailiwick, Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs truly stands alone as one-of-a-kind.

REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS highlights:

• Delicious Berry Flavor Bursts with Real Organic Berries (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries)!
• Powerful Organic and Wildcrafted Cell-Protective Herbs
• High Antioxidant (ORAC) Value of 14,270 units per serving!
• Contains Multiple Prebiotics Supporting Your Microbiome
• Suitable for Vegetarians and Vegans & Gluten Free
• Mixes Well with other Rejuvenate!™ superfoods (like Rejuvenate! PLUS and Rejuvenate! Original Greens) and smoothie ingredients.

New, improved REJUVENATE! Berries & Herbs features (per serving):
• 14.6 g protein
• Very little sugar (1.2 g total)
• 7.0 g more fiber (13 g total)
• 100 mg of organic BiAloe® aloe vera gel powder with over 18% acemannan
• 700 mcg of folate as 5-MTHF
• Smooth texture & delicious taste!

There you have it. If you’re anything like me—and you love the taste of real, organic berries—consider Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs to be your greatest ally when it comes it to tasty and healthy superfood nutrition. Make yourself a Berries & Herbs smoothie, and start creating health naturally today! ~

REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS DETAILS

INGREDIENTS: REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS contains: pea protein*, rice protein*, flax seed powder*, rice bran solubles, d-ribose, cranberry powder*, blueberry powder*, raspberry powder*, strawberry powder*, nutritional yeast, sunflower lecithin, inulin (from chicory root), broccoli sprouts powder*, mannitol, xylitol* (from hardwood), magnesium malate, VitaBerry® Plus† (from freeze dried wild blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, prune, cherry, wild bilberry, whole grape powders, resveratrol, and quercetin), l-lysine hydrochloride, mixed berry flavoring* (on gum acacia), vanilla flavoring* (on gum acacia), RNA (from yeast), magnesium ascorbate, chlorella growth factor (CGF), burdock root powder*, astragalus powder*, turmeric root powder*, ginger root powder*, digestive multienzyme complex, choline bitartrate, malic acid, dulse*, kelp*, aloe vera* (BiAloe® concentrate), n-acetyl-l-cysteine, rutin, milk thistle extract, green tea extract, licorice root powder*, dandelion root powder*, rhodolia extract, inositol, biotin, stevia leaf extract, alpha lipoic acid, d-alpha tocopheryl succinate, niacinamide (Vit. B3), whole grape extract, high-gamma mixed tocopherols, phylloquinone (Vit. K1), immune assist mushroom extract, pantothenic acid, resveratrol, methylcobalamin (Vit. B12), pyridoxal-5’-phospate (Vit. B6), thiamin diphosphate (Vit. B1), riboflavin-5’-phosphate (Vit. B2), l-selenomethionone, cholecalciferol (Vit. D3), and calcium L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate.

*Organic ingredient  †VitaBerry Plus® is a registered trademark of VDF Futureceuticals, Inc.

rejuvenate berries & herbs nutrition facts table

RESOURCES:

Discover Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs  (Product Page)

You may also like: Rejuvenate! PLUS (Product Page)

Did you know there are 3 different Rejuvenate! superfoods? Which one is best for you? See our Rejuvenate! superfood comparison page.

BLOG ARTICLES:

REJUVENATE! BERRIES & HERBS – SUPERFOOD FORMULA UPDATED

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VITAMIN B12: THE NEGLECTED NUTRIENT

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD vitamin B12 B-12 cobalamin methylcobalaminI previously wrote METHYLATION CYCLE, GENETICS, B VITAMINS in which I considered in-depth how the Methylation Cycle functions, how genetics affect metabolic pathways, and how B vitamins (including vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B2) are used in Methylation Cycle pathways. In today’s article, I take an in-depth view of what you need to know about vitamin B12, including the effects of not having sufficient amounts of Vitamin B12 in the body.

Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins. It is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin. It consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show physiological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a chemical ring structure.

Vitamin B12 (also called cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. It is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.

vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a chemical ring structure.

YOUR NEED FOR VITAMIN B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be one of the leading nutritional deficiencies in the world. An extensive 2004 study showed that deficiency is a major health concern in many parts of the world, including the North America, Central and South America, India, and certain areas in Africa. It is estimated that 40 percent of people may have low levels of vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 affects your mood, energy level, memory, nervous system, heart, skin, hair, digestion and more. It is a key nutrient regarding adrenal fatigue and multiple metabolic functions including enzyme production, DNA synthesis, and hormonal balance.

Because of vitamin B12’s extensive roles within the body, a vitamin deficiency can show up in many different symptoms, such as chronic fatigue, mood disorders such as depression, chronic stress, and low energy.

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B12

The only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria and archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat. They are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora, and continue to produce vitamin B12.

Products of animal origin such as beef (especially liver), chicken, pork, eggs, dairy, clams, and fish constitute the primary food source of vitamin B12. Older individuals and vegans are advised to use vitamin B12 fortified foods and supplements to meet their needs.

vitamin B12 salmon

Salmon is a good source of Vitamin B12

Commercially, Vitamin B12 is prepared by bacterial fermentation. Fermentation by a variety of microorganisms yields a mixture of methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin. Since multiple species of propionibacterium produce no exotoxins or endotoxins and have been granted GRAS status (generally regarded as safe) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, they are the preferred bacterial fermentation organisms for vitamin B12 production.

Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin are the forms of vitamin B12 used in the human body (called coenzyme forms). The form of cobalamin used in many some nutritional supplements and fortified foods, cyanocobalamin, is readily converted to 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin in the body.

Hydroxocobalamin is the direct precursor of methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. In mammals, cobalamin is a cofactor for only two enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and L-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase (MUT).

Unlike most other vitamins, B12 is stored in substantial amounts, mainly in the liver, until it is needed by the body. If a person stops consuming the vitamin, the body’s stores of this vitamin usually take about 3 to 5 years to exhaust. Vitamin B12 is primarily stored in the liver as 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, but is easily converted to methylcobalamin.

ABSORPTION OF VITAMIN B12

Vitamin B12, bound to protein in food, is released by the activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach. Intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 requires successively three different protein molecules: Haptocorrin, Intrinsic Factor and Transcobalamin II. If there are deficiencies in any of these factors absorption of Vitamin B12 can be seriously decreased.

When vitamin B12 is added to fortified foods and dietary supplements, it is already in free form and, thus, does not require the separation from food protein step. Free vitamin B12 then combines with intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein secreted by the stomach’s parietal cells, and the resulting complex undergoes absorption within the distal ileum by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Approximately 56% of a 1 mcg oral dose of vitamin B12 is absorbed, but absorption decreases drastically when the capacity of intrinsic factor is exceeded (at 1–2 mcg of vitamin B12).

Vitamin B12 – 5 mg methylcobalamin sublingual lozenge

Vitamin B12 – 5 mg Methylcobalamin sublingual lozenge.

VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B12 deficiency can be difficult to detect, especially since the symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency can be similar to many common symptoms, such as feeling tired or unfocused, experienced by people for a variety of reasons.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is commonly associated with chronic stomach inflammation, which may contribute to an autoimmune vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome called pernicious anemia and to a food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. Poor absorption of vitamin may be related to coeliac disease. Impairment of vitamin B12 absorption can cause megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorders in deficient subjects. In some cases, permanent damage can be caused to the body when B12 amounts are deficient.

It is noteworthy that normal function of the digestive system required for food-bound vitamin B12 absorption is commonly impaired in individuals over 60 years of age, placing them at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

A diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on the measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels within the blood. However, studies show that about 50 percent of patients with diseases related to vitamin B12 deficiency have normal B12 levels when tested. This can cause individuals to ignore taking in adequate levels of vitamin B12 with potential serious consequences.

FUNCTIONS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 STATUS IN THE BODY

  • Vitamin B12 or cobalamin plays essential roles in folate metabolism and in the synthesis of the citric acid cycle intermediate, succinyl-CoA.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is commonly associated with chronic stomach inflammation, which may contribute to an autoimmune vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome called pernicious anemia and to a food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. Impairment of vitamin B12 absorption can cause megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorders in deficient subjects.
  • Normal function of the digestive system required for food-bound vitamin B12 absorption is commonly impaired in individuals over 60 years of age, placing them at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Vitamin B12 and folate are important for homocysteine metabolism. Elevated homocysteine levels in blood are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). B vitamin supplementation has been proven effective to control homocysteine levels.
  • The preservation of DNA integrity is dependent on folate and vitamin B12 availability. Poor vitamin B12 status has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in some, but not all, observational studies.
  • Low maternal vitamin B12 status has been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD), but it is not known whether vitamin B12 supplementation could help reduce the risk of NTD.
  • Vitamin B12 is essential for the preservation of the myelin sheath around neurons and for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. A severe vitamin B12 deficiency may damage nerves, causing tingling or loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, difficulty walking, confusion, and dementia.
  • While hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of cognitive impairment, it is not clear whether vitamin B12 deficiency contributes to the risk of dementia in the elderly. Although B-vitamin supplementation lowers homocysteine levels in older subjects, the long-term benefit is not yet known.
  • Both depression and osteoporosis have been linked to diminished vitamin B12 status and high homocysteine levels.
  • The long-term use of certain medications, such as inhibitors of stomach acid secretion, can adversely affect vitamin B12 absorption.
  • Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.

MORE DETAILS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 STATUS IN THE BODY

1. Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase. Methionine synthase (MS) catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Methionine along with ATP is required for the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a universal methyl donor for almost 100 different substrates, including DNA, RNA, hormones, proteins, and lipids.
2. Vitamin B12 as 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin functions as a cofactor along with L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) to convert L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA in the degradation of propionate, an essential biochemical reaction in fat and protein metabolism. Succinyl-CoA is also required for hemoglobin synthesis.
Metabolic Pathway

 

3. Vitamin B12, bound to protein in food, is released by the activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach. When synthetic vitamin B12 is added to fortified foods and dietary supplements, it is already in free form and, thus, does not require this separation step. Free vitamin B12 then combines with intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein secreted by the stomach’s parietal cells, and the resulting complex undergoes absorption within the distal ileum by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Approximately 56% of a 1 mcg oral dose of vitamin B12 is absorbed, but absorption decreases drastically when the capacity of intrinsic factor is exceeded (at 1–2 mcg of vitamin B12).

4. Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric mucosa and results in gastric atrophy. This leads to the destruction of parietal cells, achlorhydria, and failure to produce intrinsic factor, resulting in vitamin B12 malabsorption. If pernicious anemia is left untreated, it causes vitamin B12 deficiency, leading to megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders, even in the presence of adequate dietary intake of vitamin B12.

5. Vitamin B12 status is typically assessed via serum or plasma vitamin B12 levels. Values below approximately 170–250 pg/mL (120–180 picomol/L) for adults indicate a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, evidence suggests that serum vitamin B12 concentrations might not accurately reflect intracellular concentrations. An elevated serum homocysteine level (values >13 micromol/L) might also suggest a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, this indicator has poor specificity because it is influenced by other factors, such as low vitamin B6 or folate levels. Elevated methylmalonic acid levels (values >0.4 micromol/L) might be a more reliable indicator of vitamin B12 status because they indicate a metabolic change that is highly specific to vitamin B12 deficiency.

6. Vitamin B12 deficiency is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Neurological changes, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur . Additional symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include difficulty maintaining balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. The neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur without anemia, so early diagnosis and intervention is important to avoid irreversible damage. During infancy, signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency include failure to thrive, movement disorders, developmental delays, and megaloblastic anemia. Many of these symptoms are general and can result from a variety of medical conditions other than vitamin B12 deficiency.

7. Typically, vitamin B12 deficiency is treated with vitamin B12 injections, since this method bypasses potential barriers to absorption. However, high doses of oral vitamin B12 can also be effective. The authors of a review of randomized controlled trials comparing oral with intramuscular vitamin B12 concluded that 2,000 mcg (I like 5,000 mcg) of oral vitamin B12 daily, followed by a decreased daily dose of 1,000 mcg and then 1,000 mcg weekly and finally, monthly might be as effective as intramuscular administration. Overall, an individual patient’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 is the most important factor in determining whether vitamin B12 should be administered orally or via injection. In most countries, the practice of using intramuscular vitamin B12 to treat vitamin B12 deficiency has remained unchanged.

8. Large amounts of folate can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency without correcting the neurological damage that also occurs. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B12 deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage can occur if vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated. For these reasons, folate intake from fortified food and supplements should not exceed 1,000 mcg daily in healthy adults.

Groups at Risk of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include vitamin B12 malabsorption from food, pernicious anemia, postsurgical malabsorption, and dietary deficiency. However, in many cases, the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is unknown. The following groups are among those most likely to be vitamin B12 deficient.

Older adults: Atrophic gastritis, a condition affecting 10%–30% of older adults, decreases secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, resulting in decreased absorption of vitamin B12. Decreased hydrochloric acid levels might also increase the growth of normal intestinal bacteria that use vitamin B12, further reducing the amount of vitamin B12 available to the bodY.

Individuals with atrophic gastritis are unable to absorb the vitamin B12 that is naturally present in food. Most, however, can absorb the synthetic vitamin B12 added to fortified foods and dietary supplements. As a result, the IOM recommends that adults older than 50 years obtain most of their vitamin B12 from vitamin supplements or fortified foods. However, some elderly patients with atrophic gastritis require doses much higher than the RDA to avoid subclinical deficiency.

Individuals with pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia, a condition that affects 1%–2% of older adults, is characterized by a lack of intrinsic factor. Individuals with pernicious anemia cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal tract. Pernicious anemia is usually treated with intramuscular vitamin B12. However, approximately 1% of oral vitamin B12 can be absorbed passively in the absence of intrinsic factor, suggesting that high oral doses of vitamin B12 might also be an effective treatment.

Individuals with gastrointestinal disorders: Individuals with stomach and small intestine disorders, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, may be unable to absorb enough vitamin B12 from food to maintain healthy body stores. Subtly reduced cognitive function resulting from early vitamin B12 deficiency might be the only initial symptom of these intestinal disorders, followed by megaloblastic anemia and dementia.

Individuals who have had gastrointestinal surgery: Surgical procedures in the gastrointestinal tract, such as weight loss surgery or surgery to remove all or part of the stomach, often result in a loss of cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. This reduces the amount of vitamin B12, particularly food-bound vitamin B12, that the body releases and absorbs. Surgical removal of the distal ileum also can result in the inability to absorb vitamin B12. Individuals undergoing these surgical procedures should be monitored preoperatively and postoperatively for several nutrient deficiencies, including vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vegetarians: Strict vegetarians and vegans are at greater risk than lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians of developing vitamin B12 deficiency because natural food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to animal foods. Fortified breakfast cereals and fortified nutritional yeasts are some of the only sources of vitamin B12 from plants and can be used as dietary sources of vitamin B12 for strict vegetarians and vegans. Fortified foods vary in formulation, so it is important to read the Nutrition Facts labels on food products to determine the types and amounts of added nutrients they contain.

Pregnant and lactating women who follow strict vegetarian diets and their infants: Vitamin B12 crosses the placenta during pregnancy and is present in breast milk. Exclusively breastfed infants of women who consume no animal products may have very limited reserves of vitamin B12 and can develop vitamin B12 deficiency within months of birth. Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency in infants can result in severe and permanent neurological damage.

The American Dietetic Association recommends supplemental vitamin B12 for vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians during both pregnancy and lactation to ensure that enough vitamin B12 is transferred to the fetus and infant. Pregnant and lactating women who follow strict vegetarian or vegan diets should consult with a pediatrician regarding vitamin B12 supplements for their infants and children.

Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin B12

The IOM did not establish a UL for vitamin B12 because of its low potential for toxicity. In Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline, the IOM states that “no adverse effects have been associated with excess vitamin B12 intake from food and supplements in healthy individuals”.

Findings from intervention trials support these conclusions. In the NORVIT and HOPE 2 trials, vitamin B12 supplementation (in combination with folic acid and vitamin B6) did not cause any serious adverse events when administered at doses of 0.4 mg for 40 months (NORVIT trial) and 1.0 mg for 5 years (HOPE 2 trial).

Interactions with Medications

Vitamin B12 has the potential to interact with certain medications. In addition, several types of medications might adversely affect vitamin B12 levels. A few examples are provided below. Individuals taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their vitamin B12 status with their healthcare providers.

Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin®) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic. Limited evidence from case reports indicates that chloramphenicol can interfere with the red blood cell response to supplemental vitamin B12 in some patients.

Proton pump inhibitors: Proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole (Prilosec®) and lansoprazole (Prevacid®), are used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. These drugs can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption from food by slowing the release of gastric acid into the stomach. However, the evidence is conflicting on whether proton pump inhibitor use affects vitamin B12 status. As a precaution, healthcare providers should monitor vitamin B12 status in patients taking proton pump inhibitors for prolonged periods.

H2 receptor antagonists: Histamine H2 receptor antagonists, used to treat peptic ulcer disease, include cimetidine (Tagamet®), famotidine (Pepcid®), and ranitidine (Zantac®). These medications can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12 from food by slowing the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach. Although H2 receptor antagonists have the potential to cause vitamin B12 deficiency, no evidence indicates that they promote vitamin B12 deficiency, even after long-term use. Clinically significant effects may be more likely in patients with inadequate vitamin B12 stores, especially those using H2 receptor antagonists continuously for more than 2 years.

Metformin: Metformin, a hypoglycemic agent used to treat diabetes, might reduce the absorption of vitamin B12, possibly through alterations in intestinal mobility, increased bacterial overgrowth, or alterations in the calcium-dependent uptake by ileal cells of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex. Small studies and case reports suggest that 10%–30% of patients who take metformin have reduced vitamin B12 absorption. In a randomized, placebo controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin treatment for 4.3 years significantly decreased vitamin B12 levels by 19% and raised the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency by 7.2% compared with placebo. Some studies suggest that supplemental calcium might help improve the vitamin B12 malabsorption caused by metformin, but not all researchers agree.

REFERENCES

FROM: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/71/2/514/4729184
Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to intake source in the Framingham Offspring Study

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 71, Issue 2, 1 February 2000, Pages 514–522, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.2.514

ABSTRACT

Background: Low vitamin B-12 status is prevalent among the elderly, but few studies have examined the association between vitamin B-12 status and intake.
Objective: We hypothesized that vitamin B-12 concentrations vary according to intake source.
Design: Plasma concentrations and dietary intakes were assessed cross-sectionally for 2999 subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 concentrations <148, 185, and 258 pmol/L was examined by age group (26–49, 50–64, and 65–83 y), supplement use, and the following food intake sources: fortified breakfast cereal, dairy products, and meat.
Results: Thirty-nine percent of subjects had plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations <258 pmol/L, 17% had concentrations <185 pmol/L, and 9% had concentrations <148 pmol/L, with little difference between age groups. Supplement users were significantly less likely than non-supplement-users to have concentrations <185 pmol/L (8% compared with 20%, respectively). Among non-supplement-users, there were significant differences between those who consumed fortified cereal >4 times/wk (12%) and those who consumed no fortified cereal (23%) and between those in the highest and those in the lowest tertile of dairy intake (13% compared with 24%, respectively), but no significant differences by meat tertile. Regression of plasma vitamin B-12 on log of intake, by source, yielded significant slopes for each contributor adjusted for the others. For the total group, b = 40.6 for vitamin B-12 from vitamin supplements. Among non-supplement-users, b = 56.4 for dairy products, 35.2 for cereal, and 16.7 for meat. Only the meat slope differed significantly from the others.
Conclusions: In contrast with previous reports, plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with vitamin B-12 intake. Use of supplements, fortified cereal, and milk appears to protect against lower concentrations. Further research is needed to investigate possible differences in bioavailability.

 

INTERNET REFERENCES

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OMEGA-3 ESSENTIAL FATS REMAIN “ESSENTIAL” – A REBUTTAL FROM OMNS

Fred Liers PhD omega-3 essential fats plus e EFA formulaOmega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) are critically important for health. That is the reason we at HPDI include them in our foundational supplements system in the form of our Essential Fats Plus E formula. Essential Fats Plus E provides a balanced ratio of 4:1 omega-3 EPA to omega-6 GLA fatty acids proven to optimally support health.

As important as Omega-3 fats are in good health, various studies conclude they are of little value. In order to help clarity the fallacies found in such studies, this month we re-print the recent article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS).

BACKGROUND

Essential fats including Omega-3 and Omega-6 are so important to health that we consider them as foundational or “core” to basic nutrition as multivitamins, antioxidants/vitamin C formulas, and high-RNA superfoods, like Rejuvenate! Plus.

Many of today’s health problems relate to deficiencies in Omega-3 essential fatty acids rather than overabundance of it. It makes sense for everyone to supplement their diets with at least a minimum amount of essential fats. This is addition to consuming foods high in Omega-3 (and Omega-6) essential fats, including leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and seed oils. Also, small amounts of wild-caught fish from clean waters. Preferably these fish would come from low on the food chain, such as sardines, herring, or young mackerel, for example.

In December 2107, my father Hank Liers, PhD, wrote “The Truth about Essential Fatty Acids.” In his article, he delves into detail about why essential fatty acids are critical for health.

The diagram below from Dr. Hank’s article shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

omega-3 fats omega-6 fats

Furthermore, an additional diagram from Dr. Hank’s article shown below provides details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory], series 2 prostaglandins [pro-inflammatory], and series 3 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory]), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

omega-3 fats omega-6 fats

In particular, Dr. Hank discusses how superior benefits to health result from a balanced 4:1 ratio between Omega-3 eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) fatty acids and Omega-6 gamma linoleic acid (GLA).

Below we list some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
• Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
• Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
• Mediate Immune Response
• Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
• Dilate or constrict blood vessels
• Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
• Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
• Regulate the rate at which cells divide
• Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
• Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
• Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
• Regulate nerve transmission

Dr. Hank also discusses the fallacy of thinking that supplemental Omega-3 fats alone are sufficient to produce health. That is, despite the relative lack of Omega-3 essential fats and the prevalence of Omega-6 fats in modern diets, it is nevertheless the forms (EPA and GLA)—and the critical 4:1 ratio between them—that makes the difference in how they act synergistically for health. The result of Hank’s scientific understanding of essential fatty acids has resulted in his formulation of a balanced EFA product, Essential Fats Plus E.

Orthomolecular Medicine News Service Article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease”

Regarding the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” (republished below) rebutting the “Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews” which relies on so-called “Evidence Based Medicine” (EBM) to distort truth on Omega-3 essential fatty acids, the fact that Omega-3 fats are under such false attack represents a huge disservice to the public.

While essential fatty acids may not generate profits for corporations—and in fact may lead to improved health outcomes that threaten the use of chemicals and drugs—essential fats nevertheless remain foundational for health.

Above we have shown the important reasons Omega-3 fats and other essential fatty acids are scientifically termed “essential.” And why people continue taking essential fats, and giving them to their families and children, for supporting health and well-being. Primary among these reasons is that you cannot be healthy without them. Hence, they are essential. Why believe anyone who says otherwise?

The bottom line: Omega-3 essential fatty acids are critical for health. Supplementing the diet with them is a good idea for nearly everyone. This is especially true because typical diets are proven to be most deficient in Omega-3 among essential fats.

Below we re-print in full the recent article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS) for the benefit of our HPDI blog readers. ~

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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Aug 6, 2018

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

Commentary by Damien Downing, MBBS, MSB and Robert G. Smith, PhD

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews has just updated its own review: Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease [1]. Here’s our take on it.

Michael Pollan, the brilliant food writer, reckoned you could sum up what to do about nutrition and diets in 7 words; “Eat food, not too much, mostly plants.” That sums up both what’s best for humans and what’s best for the planet.

We reckon you can sum up what’s wrong with evidence-based medicine (EBM) in 10 words; “Evidence is a waste of data; systematic reviews are palimpsests.” You can use that as a knife to quickly dissect this study.

There are many things wrong with this review. Somebody’s PR department has spun the review’s “no clear evidence of benefit” into “evidence of no benefit” – absence of evidence becoming evidence of absence. And clearly the media were entirely happy to take that one and run with it.

Systematic reviews are palimpsests

What’s a palimpsest? Back when things got written on vellum, an animal skin, not on paper, you didn’t throw it away; you recycled it and wrote over the original. It was called a palimpsest.

A systematic review gives an opportunity to write over the conclusions of a whole list of papers with your new version of the truth. You do that by the way that you select and exclude them.

For instance there was a meta-analysis (that’s a systematic review with more numbers) in 2005 that concluded that vitamin E supplements significantly increased the risk of death [2]. The way they did that was to rule out any study with less than 10 deaths – when fewer deaths was exactly the outcome they were supposed to be looking for.

The reason they gave for doing that was “because we anticipated that many small trials did not collect mortality data.” We’re not buying it; they used it as a trick to enable them to get the negative result they wanted – to over-write the findings of a long list of original studies.

And here we have authors doing the very same thing in this omega-3 study – and upping the ante slightly. Now the threshold is 50 deaths. Fewer than that and your study is ruled out of the final, supposedly least biased, analysis . . on the grounds that it’s more biased.

We don’t know how they could keep a straight face while saying (our interpretation); “The studies with fewer deaths showed more benefit from omega-3s, so we excluded them.” At least that’s what happened back in 2004 when the first version of this came out.[3]

But this is the 8th update (we think) and they no longer bother to tell you about what they included or excluded in detail, so we can only assume that if they had changed that exclusion they would have told us.

The weird thing is that they are allowed to do it. Nutrition researcher Dr. Steve Hickey has shown that in systematic reviews there is generally control for bias in the included studies, but none for bias in the actual review and its authors.[4,5]

They found not one example of adequate blinding among 100 Cochrane reviews (like this one); they could all be palimpsests. Do we know that they are fake? No, but it doesn’t matter: what we do know is that we can’t trust them. Nor can we trust this Cochrane review. Things haven’t changed since 2004.

Evidence is a waste of data

Evidence is what lawyers and courts use to find someone Guilty or Not Guilty, and we all know how that can go wrong. It’s a binary system: you’re either one or the other. But at least if you’re on trial all the evidence should be about you and whether you did the crime.

In EBM the evidence is all about populations, not about individuals. When a doctor tells you “There’s a 1 in 3 chance this treatment will work” he is required to base that on big studies, or even systematic reviews. You don’t, and you can’t, know what that means for you because very likely you don’t fit the population profile.

As Steve Hickey (again) said, the statistical fallacy underlying all this states that you have one testicle and one ovary – because that’s the population average! The authors of this study update started off with about 2100 papers that looked relevant. They then excluded 90 per cent of them for various reasons – some of them good reasons, some not.

A smarter way to work would be to data-mine them and look for useful information about sub-groups and sub-effects in all the papers. Is there a particular reason omega-3s might work for you and not for others? Perhaps you can’t stand fish, or are allergic to them, and so are deficient in omega-3s.

But the review system doesn’t allow it, it insists on overall conclusions (about populations), and that’s a colossal waste of data. It also confounds the overall finding of the review – it biases it in fact.

Here’s an example: while most subgroups that made it to the final analysis showed a small reduction in risk from taking omega-3s in one form or another (pills, food, whatever), those who got it from supplemented foods, which we understand means stuff like margarine with added omega-3, showed a 4.3-fold death risk increase!

The problem here is that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids cannot be studied alone as if they were a drug. What counts are all the other components of the diet that affect a person’s health.

Processed foods and drinks that contain many unhealthy ingredients can’t be made healthy by adding small doses of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, many processed foods that contain small doses of vitamins and other essential nutrients are unhealthy because they contain large doses of sugar, salt, and harmful ingredients such as preservatives, dyes, and other non-food items.

Why lipids are so important

Part of the problem is that lipids are truly complicated, and not many people, patients, doctors or even scientists, understand them well. You need a good understanding of lipid metabolism to appreciate the difference in metabolism and impact between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, in food such as oily fish) and extracted oils such as EPA and DHA that are only found at high levels in omega-3 supplements.

At these levels they are effectively new to nature; nobody, indeed no mammal, was exposed to really high doses of DHA until we invented fish oil supplements [6]. Miss that fact and you miss the difference between having people eat fresh oily fish or just using omega-3 margarine!

We know from a variety of studies that a diet containing generous portions of green leafy and colorful vegetables and fruits, moderate portions of eggs, fish, and meat, and supplements of adequate doses of essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals) is effective at lowering the risk for cardiovascular disease.

Adequate doses of both omega-3 (in flax oil, walnuts, fish) and omega-6 (in seed oils such as canola, soybean, peanut) fatty acids are essential for health. Although essential, omega-6 fatty acids are thought to contribute to inflammation throughout the body whereas omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for most body organs including the brain but are found in lower levels than omega-6 fatty acids in most vegetables. Risk for cardiovascular disease can be lowered by adequate doses of vitamins C (3,000-10,000mg/d), D (2,000-10,000 IU/d), E (400-1,200 IU/d), and magnesium (300-600 mg/d) in addition to an excellent diet that includes an adequate dose of omega-3 fatty acids.[7]

(Dr. Damien Downing is a specialist physician practicing in London, and President of the British Society for Ecological Medicine. Robert G. Smith is a physiologist and Research Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School Of Medicine.)

 

References:

1. Abdelhamid, A, Brown TJ, Brainard JS, et al., (2018) Omega 3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 7:CD003177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30019766
http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub3/abstract

2. Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al., (2005) Review Meta-Analysis?: High-Dosage Vitamin E Supplementation May Increase. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(1), pp.37-46. Available at: http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=718049.

3. Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, et al.. (2004) Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (4):CD003177. http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub2/abstract

4. Hickey S, Noriega LA. Implications and insights for human adaptive mechatronics from developments in algebraic probability theory, IEEE, UK Workshop on Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM), Staffs, 15-16 Jan 2009.

5. Hickey S, Hickey A, Noriega LA, (2013) The failure of evidence-based medicine? Eur J Pers Centered Healthcare 1: 69-79. http://ubplj.org/index.php/ejpch/article/view/636

6. Cortie CH, Else, PL, (2012) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) incorporates into cardiolipin at the expense of linoleic acid (18:2): Analysis and potential implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(11): 15447-15463. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/11/15447

7. Case HS (2017) Orthomolecular Nutrition for Everyone. Turner Publication Co., Nashville, TN. ISBN-13: 978-1681626574

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