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GUT HEALTH – EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE AND ANTIBIOTICS

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD leaky gut glyphosateFred Liers PhD leaky gut glyphosateWe recently added a category of products for Gut Health to the HPDI foundational supplements program. We did this not only because there is a documented increase in gut-related health issues, but also because we hear about gut health issues from our clients and resellers. They desire effective means for solving the gut health problems prevalent today.

One of the biggest gut health problems we see today is leaky gut syndrome. The syndrome goes by other names and encompasses various symptoms. These symptoms broadly encompass food allergies, sensitivities, and intolerances.

Yet, the symptoms can also include low energy, fatigue, immune disorders, as well as obesity and blood sugar issues. It also encompasses celiac disease and certain brain disorders.

In fact, most of these gut-related conditions and symptoms today go beyond what was historically meant by “leaky gut syndrome.” Today leaky gut and the conditions associated with it largely seem to relate to a combination of factors, including modern agricultural methods, use of antibiotics and certain other pharmaceuticals, and toxic chemicals in foods and the environment.

glyphosate herbicide spray

Studies show the herbicide glyphosate adversely impacts gut health.

TOXIC INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE

Agriculture was not so long ago an organic affair. Chemical fertilizers were unknown, soils were healthier, and crops were at least non-GMO.

Things got worse with the introduction of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. The green revolution of the 1960s brought more changes, including the rise of monoculture crops and more dependence on chemicals.

Chemicals used in agriculture destroy soil microbes. These chemicals induce plant growth without simultaneously improving the quality of the soil. Consequently, the result is depletion of nutrients in soils. This has been proven by measurable declines in vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients in food crops.

When soils are continuously depleted and are nutrients are not replaced or augmented (as in Biodynamic agriculture, for example), soils have fewer nutrients. Eventually crops grown in these soils will be nutrient-poor and therefore not optimal for health. Nutrient declines in soils are significant, and soils continue to be depleted of nutrients.

The combination of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides has created an unsustainable system of agriculture that does not produce nutritious food crops. Herbicides such as 2,4-D and atrazine, and pesticides like DDT (which remains in soils) are examples of chemicals that can significantly harm human and environmental health.

The introduction of genetically modified (GMO) crops has accelerated the negative effects of industrialized farming methods. This is especially true in terms of the lowering soil-quality and adversely impacting soil microbes, reducing nutrient levels in crops, and both directly and indirectly harming human health.

GMO crops have not been properly tested for safety. The dangers of GMO crops are significant. Bt corn is a crop whose genetic modification is associated directly with gut health issues (see charts below). Bt corn was created to damage the intestines of insects, but that also damages the health of the human gut.

When combined with specialized herbicides designed for use on GMO crops, the dangers of GMOs increase significantly. The primary herbicide used for GMO crops is glyphosate, which is a mineral chelator, endocrine disruptor, and biocide with antibiotic effects that kill bacteria (beneficial and harmful) indiscriminately leading to an imbalanced human microbiome.

Glyphosate appears to be associated with an increasing number of adverse health conditions partly because many health problems can be caused or exacerbated by nutrient deficiencies, endocrine disruption, microbiome imbalances, and other toxic effects. These health conditions include leaky gut syndrome which not only may result from an imbalanced microbiome, but also from a loosening of the necessarily tight junctions in the gut wall that protect us from exposure to foreign proteins not unlike the blood-brain barrier protects our brain.

TOXIC GLYPHOSATE

Use of the herbicide glyphosate has increased dramatically in recent years. Glyphosate is the primary (but by no means the only) ingredient in the herbicide RoundUp.

Glyphosate kills plants including weeds, and it does this partly by acting as a mineral chelator that prevents the uptake of nutrients by plants. This starves the plant until it dies. However, plants genetically modified to withstand glyphosate still contain fewer nutrients and are therefore less nutritious.

Moreover, any glyphosate you consume acts as a chelator in your body that  blocks your uptake of minerals and nutrients. This will not be good, especially if the GMO foods you consume are already nutrient deficient. Glyphosate also interferes with how you uptake and process nutrients (like manganese) in ways that guarantee depletion in the body, as will be discussed further below).

gmo crops glyphosate

Source: N. L. Swanson, “Genetically Modified Organisms and the Deterioration of Health in the United States” (2013)

A major reason for increasingly larger applications of glyphosate on crops is the rise of glyphosate-resistant “super weeds.” This was not predicted to happen, but clearly it is happening. Thus, the “solution” to the development of super weeds has been simply to apply more glyphosate. This means greater amounts of poison in crops, and of course, greater profits for the herbicide company.

The problem is that glyphosate is extremely toxic. If there were a perfect storm scenario for herbicide use, then glyphosate would be one component of it. Many scientists are concerned about it, including former genetic engineers like Thierry Vrain, who now advocates growing and consuming organic foods (see more below).

Increased use of glyphosate will in turn accelerate the rise of super-resistant weeds, and accelerate damage to the health of those who consume it.

Not to mention the unknown health risks of the genetically modified (GMO) crops themselves, which are sprayed with glyphosate. How would you be able to tell which is more damaging to health, the toxins embedded in GMO crops or the sprays that soak both GMO and non-GMO crops alike. None have been properly tested, or test results are hidden or suppressed.

Beyond all this, non-GMO crops like wheat, oats, barley, beans, and nuts are routinely sprayed with glyphosate at the end of the season as a means to dry these crops to make harvesting easier. So much for trying to eat verified non-GMO.

You’re likely getting a lot of glyphosate in your diet…unless you eat 100% organically grown foods that are not contaminated with glyphosate by direct spraying, spraying for the purposes of drying, or from drift related to nearby spraying.

And with increased levels of spraying to apply more of this herbicide, the likelihood is you’re getting glyphosate not only from foods, but also from a contaminated water supply (wells, rivers, streams), and from rainfall (with more than 65% of rain samples testing positive).

GLYPHOSATE ADVERSELY IMPACTS HEALTH

A noteworthy article on the topic of glyphosate and genetically modified organisms (GMO) is N.L.  Swanson’s “Genetically Modified Organisms and the Deterioration of Health in the United States” (2013). This was originally published as a series of articles on the Seattle Examiner website.

Scientists may disagree on the level of veracity of the article, and quibble over the finer points of statistical correlation. Meanwhile, people are getting sicker, not healthier. And that is the point.

If indeed glyphosate is impacting human health adversely at even a fraction of the levels argued by Swanson, then individuals should reduce their consumption of GMO foods as much as possible to avoid health consequences.

Foods containing GMOs should be clearly labeled, like they are in many other countries. Consumers have a right to know if foods contain GMO. There is no valid objection to labeling since many other (and far less harmful) ingredients in foods are labeled. This is a transparency issue. It is the least consumers deserve.

In July 2016, the US enacted the so-called DARK Act, which requires labels for GMO products. However, this law is far weaker than the Vermont law that preceded it. The US law preempts state laws. It represents a poor attempt to address consumers’ desire for labeling of GMO foods. It offers no standard labeling requirements, nor any means to enforce compliance for companies that fail to label. And while some may consider the US law progress for consumers, consider that in Europe GMO labeling went into effect back in 1997 – nearly 20 years ago.

In addition, proper scientific testing of the health effects of GMOs and in particular the herbicide glyphosate, as well as the adjuvants and surfactants contained in glyphosate-containing products—and how these ingredients act synergistically—must be carried out. Consumers should never be guinea pigs when science is available that can protect them and help them make informed decisions.

Not unlike tobacco companies that suppressed and downplayed the harm of their products, today’s purveyors of agricultural chemicals (and especially GMOs and glyphosate) are not particularly concerned about the adverse health effects of their products. In fact, it appears to be just the opposite, as studies indicating harmful effects frequently have been suppressed.

Several of the studies used to indicate safety of GMOs were short-term studies (three months) conducted by companies who make and sell the products themselves without peer review or release of data. Whereas longer-term, independent studies indicate probable harm to health, therefore showing the precautionary principle was disregarded in approving GMOs for human consumption.

In order for consumer to protect themselves, GMO labeling is a minimum measure. Most nations already require clear labeling or ban GMOs.

AVOID ANTIBIOTICS IN FOODS AND ELSEWHERE

The use of antibiotics in livestock results in a tainted food supply. This means that foods ingested contain antibiotics that damage and destroy beneficial microbes in the human gut. This contributes to reduced microbiome diversity and paves the way for a takeover by harmful bacteria.

Then there is the overuse of antibiotics in human medicine. The use of antibiotics significantly damages microbiome health and diversity. The importance of the microbiome for human health is such that antibiotic use that kills beneficial bacteria and imbalances the gut flora is proven to reduce overall health and can contribute to major health problems throughout life. This is especially true when antibiotics are used in childhood when the microbiome is establishing itself.

Glyphosate is not considered an antibiotic per se, but it exerts antibiotic-like effects. That is, glyphosate destroys microbes by acting on the Shikimate pathway, and therefore acts like an antibiotic. This pathway is not present in human beings, but is present in plants and most microbes important for the health of the human gut.

Glyphosate interferes with the synthesis by gut bacteria of aromatic amino acids (including tyrosine and tryptophan) as well as methionine. This leads to shortages in critical neurotransmitters such as serotonin and melatonin as well as folate.

There is evidence to show that glyphosate produces resistance to antibiotic drugs, just as overuse of antibiotics themselves contributes to the increase of so-called “superbugs,” or bacteria resistant to most or all antibiotics. This fact is another reason glyphosate contributes to the health problems relating to antibiotic use and to gut health issues, in particular.

The overuse of antibiotics both in humans and animals is an ongoing problem with many authorities calling for a reduction in use so that antibiotics are not rendered useless by the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

Current policies regarding antibiotics virtually guarantee that not only will microbiome health be harmed by the consumption of antibiotic tainted foods and by the use of antibiotics too easily prescribed, but also that harmful bacteria will become stronger rendering antibiotics less useful in applications where they are truly needed.

An interesting fact in this regard is that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacteria, is a major problem in hospitals today due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. It is one of only three bacterial species that can break down glyphosate. However, it produces formaldehyde as a by-product. Formaldehyde is a well-established neurotoxin. It is likely that the growth of this harmful bacteria is stimulated by the presence of glyphosate in the gut.

Avoidance of antibiotics in foods and when not medically necessary are ways individuals can help keep themselves healthy.

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

While this article deals primarily with the topic of gut or gastrointestinal health, it is noteworthy that glyphosate is considered to be an endocrine disruptor.

Endocrine disruption is associated with birth defects, reproductive problems (like infertility), breast cancer, and developmental problems in babies and children before and after birth, as well as a host of other health effects.

Endocrine disruptors are common in the environment, and we have written about them in previous posts. Glyphosate’s role as an endocrine disruptor is important not only because it is another harmful element among its many dangers, but also simply because of its ubiquitousness in the environment.

The amount of glyphosate spray in the US and the world in extraordinary. As weeds have become resistant to glyphosate (leading  to the rise of super weeds), the solution has been to spray more of it. Therefore, the amounts to which individuals are exposed have skyrocketed along with the increase in its application on crops and elsewhere.

Also, as noted, the practice of spraying glyphosate as a desiccating agent on non-GMO crops (such as wheat, oats, sugar cane, and peanuts) contributes significantly to human exposure. So too does “household” use in gardens and use by municipalities for spraying to decrease “weeds” in public places, such as parks and schools.

NUTRIENTS, HORMONES, AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS DISRUPTED BY GLYPHOSATE

Dr. Stephanie Seneff is a leading researcher in the area of the harmful effects of glyphosate. The following YouTube presentation by Dr. Seneff and Dr. Sachin Patel (interviewer) provides a wealth of information for the reader and is highly recommended: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpoGUPwe40c

In Dr. Seneff’s presentations she has pointed out that the following nutrients, hormones, and neurotransmitters are disrupted by glyphosate:

  1. Folate, Vitamin K, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and cobalamin (Vitamin B12).
  2. Aromatic amino acids and methionine
  3. Iron, manganese, cobalt, selenium, zinc, and sulfur
  4. Serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, epinephrine
  5. Melanin (skin tanning agent), thyroid hormone
  6. NAD, glutathione (key antioxidant defenses)

Clearly it would be wise to take in foods and nutritional supplements that could replete the body with these  substances.

In order to compensate for these effects of glyphosate Dr. Seneff recommends the following supplements:

  1. Curcumin (see HPDI CURCUMIN C3 COMPLEX)
  2. Garlic
  3. Vitamin C (see HPDI PRO-C™ and Ultimate Protector™)
  4. Probiotics (see Prescript-Assist™)
  5. L-5-Methytetrahydrofolate (see HPDI 5-MTHF)
  6. Vitamin B-12 (see HPDI Methylcobalamin)
  7. Glutathione (contained in HPDI GLU-NAC Plus)
  8. Taurine (contained in HPDI Hepa Plus)

GLYPHOSATE DISRUPTS PROTEINS AND ENZYMES RELYING ON GLYCINE

Recently, Dr. Seneff and collaborators have identified the fact that glyphosate – a glycine amino acid based molecule – can disrupt a large number of enzymes in the body by inserting itself into proteins during the synthesis process where glycine would normally be inserted. When this happens, the function of the enzyme is completely negated. For further details see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snNRfAfSeUk

LEAKY GUT AND BT TOXINS

Another class of worrisome genetically modified crops are Bt corn and other Bt crops (cotton, potato, and soy). Note that there are also glyphosate tolerant/resistant strains of corn (maize), so all types of GMO corn are potentially hazardous to health.

Bt corn is a variant of maize genetically altered to express proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Thousands of different Bt strains exist that produce proteins toxic to insect pests. Particular strains are chosen to target specific plant pests, such at the European Corn Borer (ECB).

 When an insect consumes Bt-containing plant tissues, one or more Bt proteins become activated in its gut, creating toxins that paralyze its digestive system and form holes in its gut wall.

Bt toxins bind to receptors in the insect’s gut. This causes the  gut wall to break down and allows toxins, as well as normal gut bacteria to enter the insect’s body. Toxins and bacteria proliferate in the insect’s body causing death. Notably, many insects have developed resistance to glyphosate, just as have weeds.

It has been noted by commentators that the human digestive system appears to be damaged in a similar way by proteins in Bt corn. In any event, as the number of acres planted with Bt corn increases, it appears that human digestive disorders also increase.

irritable bowel syndrome gut health bt corn

Source: N. L. Swanson, “Genetically Modified Organisms and the Deterioration of Health in the United States” (2013)

Disorders of the digestive system associated with Bt toxins not only include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and constipation, but also Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

inflammatory bowel disease crohn colitis gut bt corn

Source: N. L. Swanson, “Genetically Modified Organisms and the Deterioration of Health in the United States” (2013)

While the effects of the Bt toxin are different than those of glyphosate and other chemicals in glyphosate-containing crop chemicals, the fact is that evidence shows that the Bt toxins appear to adversely impact gut health.

KEY TAKEAWAY: CONSUME 100% ORGANIC DIET

Among key takeaways from examining the literature of problems associated with antibiotic use, as well as with the chemicals associated with modern agriculture and genetically modified foods (i.e., glyphosate and other herbicides, pesticides, and various surfactants and adjuvants used with them): Choose to eat organic foods as much as possible for best health.

Only by consuming organic foods can individually significantly reduce the amount of glyphosate, pesticides, antibiotics, and other harmful chemicals in the diet to support good health in general, and gut health in particular. Organic foods are also more nutrient dense, and therefore more nutritious.

After it is understood how current industrial agricultural methods contribute to damaging human health, then organic foods can be seen as a solution helping ensure avoidance of most or many of harmful elements in foods.

Organically grown foods may be tainted by drift or by toxins in the soil existing before the adoption of organic farming methods. Yet, the amounts of such toxins will be significantly reduced overall by consuming organic foods. The longer-term solution is adoption of organic methods (and corresponding reductions in use of chemicals and GMOs in agriculture) that will result in a cleaner, safer food supply for all.

Some say that organic foods are no better, or cost too much, or do not improve health. But the truth is that they are better, should not cost more, and are far more sustainable for human and planetary health. In fact, at this point in time, consuming organic foods may be the only practical solution for avoiding health problems, especially gut-health problems, associated with industrialized, chemically based agricultural methods.

Growing food yourself is another option, as is purchasing organic or locally grown organically grown produce at your Farmer’s Market. These foods will not be sprayed with toxins and will not suffer the same level of nutrient declines found in conventional produce. Having even a relatively small garden at home will allow you to supplement organic foods you obtain locally. Some neighborhoods support community gardens where you can grow foods organically.

Between consuming foods you grow, purchasing organic or non-sprayed produce locally and/or at natural foods stores, emphasizing grass-fed, free-range animal products (e.g., eggs and meats), and reducing meals at restaurants that serve conventional foods (as well as ordering organic and non-GMO foods whenever possible), you can largely bypass or reduce the toxicity and gut-health issues associated with the toxins and GMOs in foods sold in grocery stores and ubiquitous in our food distribution system.

A 100% organic diet is recommend, entirely possible, and at the very least a worthy goal. It will pay dividends in terms of good health and how you feel.

Others recommend to detoxify from glyphosate by consuming an organic diet.

AVOID WHEAT, GLUTEN, AND SIMPLE CARBS

Wheat stands out as a singular food to avoid. It been hybridized beyond all recognition with many genes being added because wheat genes are additive. The wheat protein gluten has been linked to many types of health problems.

Gluten has long been a problem for gut health. Now with glyphosate being sprayed directly on wheat crops (as well as oats, sugar cane, and peanuts) as a desiccating agent, it seems that opening tight junctions in the gut and then having exposure to gluten is a prescription for disaster.

glyphosate wheat leaky gut intestinal infection

Glyphosate increasingly is sprayed on wheat (a non-GMO crop) for drying before harvest. How does poisoning wheat this way make sense?

Some commentators (like Wheat Belly author William Davis, MD) show that gluten is linked with obesity, diabetes, celiac disease, and many others.

Avoidance of wheat, gluten, and other simple carbohydrates is a good idea if you would maintain and retain good gut health.

celiac glyphosate wheat goo

Celiac disease has significantly increased with the practice of spraying glyphosate on wheat.

HEALTH EFFECTS LINKED TO GLYPHOSATE

In the article “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases,” Stephanie Seneff and Anthony Samsel state that there are many pathologies to which glyphosate may contribute:

“The pathologies to which glyphosate could plausibly contribute, through its known biosemiotic effects, include inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, depression, ADHD, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, multiple sclerosis, cancer, cachexia, infertility, and developmental malformations.” (Entropy 201315(4), 1416-1463; doi:10.3390/e15041416)

SUMMARY

Industrial agriculture, including the practices associated with the cultivation of GMO crops, harms the soils and human health.

Dangers to human health from industrial agriculture and GMOs includes harm to gastrointestinal health. This encompasses many conditions, including Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Leaky gut does not always result from a single cause, but can involve multiple factors, including exposure to glyphosate (and its adjuvants), Bt toxins, depleted nutrient levels, wheat and wheat protein (gluten/gliadin) exposure, microbiome imbalances or disruption, antibiotic use or consuming foods containing antibiotics, other chemical exposures, and additional factors.

Ways to avoid leaky gut: 1) Consume a 100% organic diet, 2) Avoid GMOs, 3) Avoid antibiotics, 4) Maintain a healthy microbiome, 5) Avoid wheat and simple carbohydrates (and simple sugars), 6) Improve nutrient levels through diet and dietary supplements, 7) Use specific supplements that help restore and maintain gut health 7) Detoxify on a regular basis using juices, herbs, and other practices.

We will continue writing articles for blog series on the topic of gut health. In coming months, we will write about various means for improving gastrointestinal structure and function. These means include restoring tight junctions in the gut using Restore (lignite formula).

 

SOURCES & RESOURCES

Center For Food Safety (CFS)

Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT)

The Detox Project (Glyphosate Portal)

ARTICLES & STUDIES

Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines

Genetically Modified Organisms and the Deterioration of Health in the United States“, N. L. Swanson, MIT

Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Plants have a microbiome just like humans — and it could transform how our food is produced

Understanding Glyphosate Toxicity: Interview with Genetic Engineer Thierry Vrain (Mother Earth News)

HPDI-RELATED ARTICLES

Gut Health – Intestinal Rejuvenation Formula

Amending the HPDI Foundational Supplement Program

Microbiome, Diet, and Prescript-Assist Probiotic and Prebiotic

Kidney Cleansing with Juices & Herbs

Liver Cleanse with Juices & Herbs

Rejuvenation Program: Part 2 (Detoxification)

Death by One (Or Two) Thousand Cuts

Dr. Mark Sircus’s blog article at www.DrSircus.com:
“Apples – Pectin – Intestinal Formula”

BOOKS

Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and Protect Your Brain for Life by Dr. David Perlmutter

Grain Brain: The Surprising Truth About Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar – Your Brain’s Silent Killers by Dr. David Perlmutter

Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health by Dr. William Davis

VIDEOS

PRODUCTS

INTESTINAL REJUVENATION FORMULA

PRESCRIPT-ASSIST™ Probiotic Formula (soil-based organisms)

RESTORE For Gut Health (lignite formula)

PROLYT
(proteolytic enzymes)

DIGASE
(full spectrum plant enzymes)

Nascent Iodine

Magnesium Oil, Flakes, Gel

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WONDERS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN

Fred Liers PhD molecular hydrogen H2I drink hydrogen-infused water. You should, too. Why? Because the age of hydrogen is here. Molecular hydrogen, that is. We now know that molecular hydrogen has therapeutic potential for nearly every organ in the human body, as well as for 150 different human disease models! And it’s extremely safe.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN: BACKGROUND

Molecular hydrogen, also known as “diatomic hydrogen,” is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas.

Elemental hydrogen (H) is the most abundant element in the universe constituting 75% of its mass. Yet, it is absent on earth in its monoatomic form, being present in water, and inorganic and organic compounds. Molecular hydrogen is found in the earth’s atmosphere at less than one part per million.

molecular hydrogen H2 water

Hydrogen-infused water is a simple means to consume molecular hydrogen.

The science regarding benefits to health of molecular hydrogen (H2) has advanced rapidly in recent years thanks to the pioneering efforts of research scientists around the globe.

Now hydrogen science is moving quickly beyond theory to practical applications. Moreover, new products exist allowing medical professionals and consumers to leverage the health benefits of hydrogen.

For decades, diatomic molecular hydrogen was generally considered an “inert” gas. That is perhaps the primary reason that molecular hydrogen has been recognized as a therapeutic molecule only recently.

Indeed, science has known about the health benefits of molecular hydrogen as early as 1798. Yet, as noted, for most of modern history the belief persisted that hydrogen was inert in the body. It was only in the late 20th century (ca. 1975) that it gained the attention of medical researchers, and only in the past 10 years has evidence for the health effects of molecular hydrogen gained critical mass in the scientific literature.

There are now more than 500 peer-reviewed articles demonstrating the therapeutic potential of hydrogen for nearly every organ in the human body, as well as in 150 different human disease models, according to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN (H2)

• Molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress as a selective antioxidant and by maintaining homeostatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase,  and other free-radical scavenging nutrients.

• The antioxidant capacities of molecular hydrogen are such that it is beneficial for persistent and acute oxidative stress.

• Acute oxidative stress arises from a multitude of causes, including inflammation, cardiac or cerebral infarction, organ transplantation, heavy exercise, cessation of operative bleeding, and many other causes.

• Persistent oxidative stress relates to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the body throughout life. For example, during exercise, exposure to pollutants and toxins or UV light, as well as physical and psychological stresses, and the aging process itself. As aerobic organisms, we generate ROS when breathing consumes oxygen.

• Molecular hydrogen is effective against hydroxyl radicals (OH). The hydroxyl radical is the radical species that causes much of the oxidative damage in the body. While vitamin C, glutathione, and certain plant-based antioxidants are somewhat effective against this radical, there is no Nrf2-induced enzyme that effectively quenches the hydroxl radical.

• This positions molecular hydrogen as a uniquely effective antioxidant against the hydroxyl radical. Notably, when molecular hydrogen quenches the hydroxyl radical, it produces water, which is non-toxic in the body.

• Beyond this, molecular hydrogen, like other gaseous signaling molecules such as NO, CO, H2S, appears to exhibit cell signal-modulating activity that confers it with anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-allergy, and many other benefits.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN MEDICINE

The scientific literature discusses the use of molecular hydrogen for many clinical applications, including the following:

• METABOLIC SYNDROME including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity

• ISCHEMIA / REPERFUSION injuries including cerebral and myocardial infarctions, organ transplants, post-cardiac arrest

• NEUROPROTECTION including applications for dementia, Parkinson’s disease, depression, and anesthesia

• INFLAMMATION including applications for polymicrobial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, and bowel diseases

• MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES

• HEMODIALYSIS / VENTILATION

• AGING including cognitive decline

• EXERCISE including applications for fatigue, lactic acid, recovery, and oxidative stress related to heavy exercise

SIDE EFFECTS OF CANCER THERAPIES including radiotherapy and chemotherapy

• MANY OTHER BENEFITS

athlete molecular hydrogen performance race

Athletes benefit from molecular hydrogen. You can, too.

HOW MOLECULAR HYDROGEN WORKS

According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, there are three ways molecular hydrogen exerts positive health effects.

1.  Molecular hydrogen easily diffuses into subcellular compartments where it scavenges cytotoxic oxygen radicals, thereby protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against oxidative stress.

2.  Molecular hydrogen triggers activation or upregulation of additional antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and others) and/or cytoprotective proteins of the body.

3.  Molecular hydrogen may be a novel signaling molecule that alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IS SAFE

Molecular hydrogen exhibits great safety, and it is regarded as safe for use in the body. It is shown no toxicity even in high concentrations.

Safety standards are already established for high concentrations of molecular hydrogen for inhalation because high-pressure H2 gas is used in deep-water diving gas mixtures to prevent decompression sickness.

Notably, H2 gas combusts only at temperatures higher than 527 °C, and it explodes by chain reaction with oxygen (O2) only in the range of Hconcentration (4–75%, vol/vol).

Molecular hydrogen can be used for medical applications safely by several ingestion methods including inhalation of 1–4% hydrogen gas, which exhibits great effectiveness.

All these factors mean that molecular hydrogen is safe, easy-to-use, and effective for therapeutic purposes.

molecular hydrogen H2 water

Hydrogen-infused water is safe, easy-to-consume, and cost effective.

USING MOLECULAR HYDROGEN

Methods for consuming molecular hydrogen include inhalation, oral ingestion of hydrogen-infused water, injection of hydrogen saline, and direct diffusion (eye drops, baths, cosmetics, etc.).

An advantage of inhaled H2 gas is that is acts rapidly. In this respect, may be suitable for defense against acute oxidative stress.

It has been shown that inhalation of 3–4% hydrogen (H2) gas reaches a plateau at approximately 10–20 μM in the arterial and venous blood in about 20 minutes. This is shown not to affect any physiological parameters (e.g., blood pressure), suggesting no adverse effects.

According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, the consensus is that drinking H2-rich water is the easiest, and often the most effective, method for obtaining molecular hydrogen although it does not provide as many hydrogen molecules to the body as other methods.

Some studies show consuming H2-infused water to be more effective than inhalation or increasing intestinal H2 production via lactulose administration.

Another advantage of drinking hydrogen infused water is that it allows gastric induction of ghrelin, which is mediated via activation of beta 1 adrenergic receptors.

Above all, drinking hydrogen-infused water is easy to do, and convenient as you can drink it at home or while traveling.

HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

Inhalation of molecular hydrogen gas may be impractical for continuous H2 consumption in daily life. In contrast, solubilized H2 (hydrogen-infused water) is a portable, easily administered, and safe means to ingest H2.

H2 can be dissolved in water up to 0.8 mM (1.6 mg/L) under atmospheric pressure at room temperature without changing pH.

Hwater can be made by several methods: infusing H2 gas into water under pressure, electrolyzing water to producing H2, and reacting magnesium metal or its hydride with water.

Notably, H2 penetrates glass or plastic walls of vessels in a short time, yet aluminum containers retain hydrogen gas for a long time.

Water ionizers produce hydrogen gas via electrolysis. This method produces hydrogen concentrations from less than 0.05 ppm to more than 2.5 ppm. Typically 0.1 to 0.7 ppm hydrogen is produced, yet most companies manufacturing water ionizers neither know the concentration produced nor understand the significance of hydrogen for health.

In this regard, depending upon the production method much of the water containing molecular hydrogen exhibits a negative oxygen reduction potential (ORP). Yet, ORP is only a general indication of hydrogen production and is not a measurement of its concentration.

A second method of producing hydrogen-rich water by electrolysis is by infusion. In this method, hydrogen is directly infused into filtered water within a machine.

Another convenient method to generate molecular hydrogen is to add alkali-earth metals to water. Magnesium metal in commonly used for this purpose. This method allows for the production of high concentrations of molecular hydrogen that are generally near saturation (1.6 ppm), and therefore less water needs to be consumed by individuals drinking it.

Magnesium sticks and tablets/capsules are available (some of which are placed in water and others that can be consumed directly) that rapidly produce 2–4 ppm molecular hydrogen concentration. Like electrolysis, adding metals to water also increased the pH of water because they reduce the concentration of H+ ions.

Other methods exist that can produce supersaturated concentrations of molecular hydrogen with or without alteration of water pH. Advantages of these methods include having to drink a fraction of the amount of water in order to obtain an equal amount of molecular hydrogen.

Drinking water containing molecular hydrogen is probably the easiest and most cost-effective means for most persons to obtain hydrogen.

man drinks water infused with molecular hydrogen

Hydrogen-infused water can be consumed using tablets, prepared H2 beverages, or ionized water.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM YOUR MICROBIOME

Certain types bacteria in the intestinal tract produce hydrogen gas from non-digestible fibers, which may explain how fiber-rich diets reduce inflammation, and exert cardiovascular and other health benefits.

Diets low in dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables, or a decrease in microbiome diversity could potentially reduce production of molecular hydrogen. This could exert adverse effects on health.

The presence (or absence) of a diverse and robust microbiome may be one of the most significant factors in terms of how much hydrogen can be generated in the body. Most people today do not create the levels of molecular hydrogen in their digestive tracts that humans in earlier time periods generated largely because due to modern diets and less than optimal microbiome health.

Factors that influence or reduce microbiome health and diversity include antibiotic use, imbalanced diet, lack of certain fiber-rich vegetables in the diet, and consumption of herbicides, pesticides, and GMOs (that include glyphosate) that harm microbial populations and cause “leaky gut”.

As knowledge increases regarding ways we can support a healthy microbiome, the biological significance of hydrogen historically produced in our digestive tracts will be better understood.

BENEFIT TODAY FROM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN

The clinical applications of molecular hydrogen are impressive. One of the great advantages of molecular hydrogen infused water is that  it is easy to consume it, or make it in your own home or wherever you happen to be.

HPDI now sells a tablet hydrogen product from Purative known as Active H2.

Active H2 is a unique, patent-pending combination of all-natural minerals used to generate molecular hydrogen and electron-rich potential (-ORP). This distinguishes it from existing hydrogen formulas and electrolysis (water ionizers).

Active H2 is easy to use.  Simply place one tablet of in a 1/2 liter (16 oz) container of pure water (filled to the top) and close tightly. Wait at least 5–10 minutes for it to completely disintegrate (fizz), and then drink.

A one pint glass mason jar works well as a container for this purpose. However, you can use up to one liter (about 32 ounces) of water in a container, so a quart mason jar also works well. Consume the hydrogen-infused water ideally at least 30 minutes before food.

Active H2 formula consists of a proprietary blend of pure magnesium, malic acid, fumaric acid, and maltose that synergistically act to generate molecular hydrogen and electron-rich potential (-ORP).

Active H2 is the only all-natural add-in tablet providing molecular hydrogen in the amount of greater than 1.8 ppm, That is, one tablet typically generates molecular hydrogen in the concentration of about 2 ppm.

There are other molecular hydrogen products, including tablets, sticks, and pre-infused bottled products like H2Bev. H2Bev provides about 1.2–1.5 ppm of molecular hydrogen and comes in a 12 oz coated aluminum container for excellent H2 retention.

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN SUMMARY

Molecular hydrogen sits in the unique position of providing significant, wide-ranging benefits for health with an unmatched ease-of-use, and at relatively low cost for what it delivers.

We highly recommend the use of molecular hydrogen for its health benefits and for therapeutic applications. This includes the consumption of hydrogen-infused water whether from prepared H2 beverages, water ionizers, or highly effective Active H2 tablets.

Below we include important scientific abstracts you may find helpful in understanding the benefits and applications of molecular hydrogen.

 

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN

Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen – comprehensive review of 321 original articles

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483953

Abstract
Therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen for a wide range of disease models and human diseases have been investigated since 2007. A total of 321 original articles have been published from 2007 to June 2015. Most studies have been conducted in Japan, China, and the USA. About three-quarters of the articles show the effects in mice and rats. The number of clinical trials is increasing every year. In most diseases, the effect of hydrogen has been reported with hydrogen water or hydrogen gas, which was followed by confirmation of the effect with hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen water is mostly given ad libitum. Hydrogen gas of less than 4% is given by inhalation. The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. Specific extinctions of hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite were initially presented, but the radical-scavenging effect of hydrogen cannot be held solely accountable for its drastic effects. We and others have shown that the effects can be mediated by modulating activities and expressions of various molecules such as Lyn, ERK, p38, JNK, ASK1, Akt, GTP-Rac1, iNOS, Nox1, NF-κB p65, IκBα, STAT3, NFATc1, c-Fos, and ghrelin. Master regulator(s) that drive these modifications, however, remain to be elucidated and are currently being extensively investigated.

Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769081

Abstract
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been accepted to be an inert and nonfunctional molecule in our body. We have turned this concept by demonstrating that H2 reacts with strong oxidants such as hydroxyl radical in cells, and proposed its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H2 has a number of advantages exhibiting extensive effects: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect signaling reactive oxygen species; therefore, there should be no or little adverse effects of H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2; inhaling H2 gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (H2-water), injecting H2-dissolved saline (H2-saline), taking an H2 bath, or dropping H2-saline into the eyes. The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under investigation. Since most drugs specifically act to their targets, H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, H2 has promising potential for clinical use against many diseases.

Molecular hydrogen in drinking water protects against neurodegenerative changes induced by traumatic brain injury.

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251220

Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in its various forms has emerged as a major problem for modern society. Acute TBI can transform into a chronic condition and be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, probably through induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined the ability of the antioxidant molecular hydrogen given in drinking water (molecular hydrogen water; mHW) to alter the acute changes induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI), a commonly used experimental model of TBI. We found that mHW reversed CCI-induced edema by about half, completely blocked pathological tau expression, accentuated an early increase seen in several cytokines but attenuated that increase by day 7, reversed changes seen in the protein levels of aquaporin-4, HIF-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, but not for amyloid beta peptide 1-40 or 1-42. Treatment with mHW also reversed the increase seen 4 h after CCI in gene expression related to oxidation/carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine release, leukocyte or cell migration, cytokine transport, ATP and nucleotide binding. Finally, we found that mHW preserved or increased ATP levels and propose a new mechanism for mHW, that of ATP production through the Jagendorf reaction. These results show that molecular hydrogen given in drinking water reverses many of the sequelae of CCI and suggests that it could be an easily administered, highly effective treatment for TBI.

The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680032

Abstract
Studies on molecular hydrogen have evolved tremendously from its humble beginnings and have continued to change throughout the years. Hydrogen is extremely unique since it has the capability to act at the cellular level. Hydrogen is qualified to cross the blood brain barrier, to enter the mitochondria, and even has the ability to translocate to the nucleus under certain conditions. Once in these ideal locations of the cell, previous studies have shown that hydrogen exerts antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are beneficial to the cell. Hydrogen is most commonly applied as a gas, water, saline, and can be applied in a variety of other mediums. There are also few side effects involving hydrogen, thus making hydrogen a perfect medical gas candidate for the convention of novel therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, cancer, metabolic, and respiratory diseases and disorders. Although hydrogen appears to be faultless at times, there still are several deficiencies or snares that need to be investigated by future studies. This review article seeks to delve and comprehensively analyze the research and experiments that alludes to molecular hydrogen being a novel therapeutic treatment that medicine desperately needs.

Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3377272/

Abstract
Effects of molecular hydrogen on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Most studies have been performed on rodents including two models of Parkinson’s disease and three models of Alzheimer’s disease. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson’s disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine. Six human diseases have been studied to date: diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, hemodialysis, inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies, brain stem infarction, and radiation-induced adverse effects. Two enigmas, however, remain to be solved. First, no dose-response effect is observed. Rodents and humans are able to take a small amount of hydrogen by drinking hydrogen-rich water, but marked effects are observed. Second, intestinal bacteria in humans and rodents produce a large amount of hydrogen, but an addition of a small amount of hydrogen exhibits marked effects. Further studies are required to elucidate molecular bases of prominent hydrogen effects and to determine the optimal frequency, amount, and method of hydrogen administration for each human disease.

Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21621588

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Mitochondria are the major source of oxidative stress. Acute oxidative stress causes serious damage to tissues, and persistent oxidative stress is one of the causes of many common diseases, cancer and the aging process; however, there has been little success in developing an effective antioxidant with no side effect. We have reported that molecular hydrogen has potential as an effective antioxidant for medical applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat. Med. 13 (2007) 688-694].

SCOPE OF REVIEW:
We review the recent progress toward therapeutic and preventive applications of hydrogen. Since we published the first paper in Nature Medicine, effects of hydrogen have been reported in more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals. Based on this cumulative knowledge, the beneficial biological effects of hydrogen have been confirmed. There are several ways to intake or consume hydrogen, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water, taking a hydrogen bath, injecting hydrogen-dissolved saline, dropping hydrogen-dissolved saline into the eyes, and increasing the production of intestinal hydrogen by bacteria. Hydrogen has many advantages for therapeutic and preventive applications, and shows not only anti-oxidative stress effects, but also has various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Preliminary clinical trials show that drinking hydrogen-dissolved water seems to improve the pathology of mitochondrial disorders.

MAJOR CONCLUSIONS:
Hydrogen has biological benefits toward preventive and therapeutic applications; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of small amounts of hydrogen remain elusive.

GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:
Hydrogen is a novel antioxidant with great potential for actual medical applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Mitochondria.

Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736547

Abstract
Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat Med. 2007: 13; 688-94]. H(2) has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H(2) rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H(2). There are several methods to ingest or consume H(2), including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking H(2)-dissolved water (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting H(2)- dissolved saline (hydrogen saline), dropping hydrogen saline onto the eye, and increasing the production of intestinal H(2) by bacteria. Since the publication of the first H(2) paper in Nature Medicine in 2007, the biological effects of H(2) have been confirmed by the publication of more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals, and several groups have started clinical examinations. Moreover, H(2) shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects. H(2) regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of very small amounts of H(2) remain elusive.

Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17486089

Abstract
Acute oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion or inflammation causes serious damage to tissues, and persistent oxidative stress is accepted as one of the causes of many common diseases including cancer. We show here that hydrogen (H(2)) has potential as an antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications. We induced acute oxidative stress in cultured cells by three independent methods. H(2) selectively reduced the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and effectively protected cells; however, H(2) did not react with other ROS, which possess physiological roles. We used an acute rat model in which oxidative stress damage was induced in the brain by focal ischemia and reperfusion. The inhalation of H(2) gas markedly suppressed brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Thus H(2) can be used as an effective antioxidant therapy; owing to its ability to rapidly diffuse across membranes, it can reach and react with cytotoxic ROS and thus protect against oxidative damage.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

MOLECULAR HYDROGEN (H2) AT FOREFRONT OF HEALTH RESEARCH
by Hank Liers, PhD (from the HPDI blog)

ACTIVE H2 (tablet product)

Molecular Hydrogen Foundation (MHF)

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