Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) are critically important for health. That is the reason we at HPDI include them in our foundational supplements system in the form of our Essential Fats Plus E formula. Essential Fats Plus E provides a balanced ratio of 4:1 omega-3 EPA to omega-6 GLA fatty acids proven to optimally support health.
As important as Omega-3 fats are in good health, various studies conclude they are of little value. In order to help clarity the fallacies found in such studies, this month we re-print the recent article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS).
Essential fats including Omega-3 and Omega-6 are so important to health that we consider them as foundational or “core” to basic nutrition as multivitamins, antioxidants/vitamin C formulas, and high-RNA superfoods, like Rejuvenate! Plus.
Many of today’s health problems relate to deficiencies in Omega-3 essential fatty acids rather than overabundance of it. It makes sense for everyone to supplement their diets with at least a minimum amount of essential fats. This is addition to consuming foods high in Omega-3 (and Omega-6) essential fats, including leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and seed oils. Also, small amounts of wild-caught fish from clean waters. Preferably these fish would come from low on the food chain, such as sardines, herring, or young mackerel, for example.
In December 2107, my father Hank Liers, PhD, wrote “The Truth about Essential Fatty Acids.” In his article, he delves into detail about why essential fatty acids are critical for health.
The diagram below from Dr. Hank’s article shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.
Furthermore, an additional diagram from Dr. Hank’s article shown below provides details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory], series 2 prostaglandins [pro-inflammatory], and series 3 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory]), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.
In particular, Dr. Hank discusses how superior benefits to health result from a balanced 4:1 ratio between Omega-3 eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) fatty acids and Omega-6 gamma linoleic acid (GLA).
Below we list some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.
• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis • Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels • Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling • Mediate Immune Response • Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity • Dilate or constrict blood vessels • Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes • Are primary constituents of cellular membranes • Regulate the rate at which cells divide • Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues • Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance • Prevent red blood cells from clumping together • Regulate nerve transmission
Dr. Hank also discusses the fallacy of thinking that supplemental Omega-3 fats alone are sufficient to produce health. That is, despite the relative lack of Omega-3 essential fats and the prevalence of Omega-6 fats in modern diets, it is nevertheless the forms (EPA and GLA)—and the critical 4:1 ratio between them—that makes the difference in how they act synergistically for health. The result of Hank’s scientific understanding of essential fatty acids has resulted in his formulation of a balanced EFA product, Essential Fats Plus E.
Orthomolecular Medicine News Service Article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease”
Regarding the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” (republished below) rebutting the “Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews” which relies on so-called “Evidence Based Medicine” (EBM) to distort truth on Omega-3 essential fatty acids, the fact that Omega-3 fats are under such false attack represents a huge disservice to the public.
While essential fatty acids may not generate profits for corporations—and in fact may lead to improved health outcomes that threaten the use of chemicals and drugs—essential fats nevertheless remain foundational for health.
Above we have shown the important reasons Omega-3 fats and other essential fatty acids are scientifically termed “essential.” And why people continue taking essential fats, and giving them to their families and children, for supporting health and well-being. Primary among these reasons is that you cannot be healthy without them. Hence, they are essential. Why believe anyone who says otherwise?
The bottom line: Omega-3 essential fatty acids are critical for health. Supplementing the diet with them is a good idea for nearly everyone. This is especially true because typical diets are proven to be most deficient in Omega-3 among essential fats.
Below we re-print in full the recent article “Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease” from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS) for the benefit of our HPDI blog readers. ~
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Aug 6, 2018
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease
Commentary by Damien Downing, MBBS, MSB and Robert G. Smith, PhD
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews has just updated its own review: Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease . Here’s our take on it.
Michael Pollan, the brilliant food writer, reckoned you could sum up what to do about nutrition and diets in 7 words; “Eat food, not too much, mostly plants.” That sums up both what’s best for humans and what’s best for the planet.
We reckon you can sum up what’s wrong with evidence-based medicine (EBM) in 10 words; “Evidence is a waste of data; systematic reviews are palimpsests.” You can use that as a knife to quickly dissect this study.
There are many things wrong with this review. Somebody’s PR department has spun the review’s “no clear evidence of benefit” into “evidence of no benefit” – absence of evidence becoming evidence of absence. And clearly the media were entirely happy to take that one and run with it.
Systematic reviews are palimpsests
What’s a palimpsest? Back when things got written on vellum, an animal skin, not on paper, you didn’t throw it away; you recycled it and wrote over the original. It was called a palimpsest.
A systematic review gives an opportunity to write over the conclusions of a whole list of papers with your new version of the truth. You do that by the way that you select and exclude them.
For instance there was a meta-analysis (that’s a systematic review with more numbers) in 2005 that concluded that vitamin E supplements significantly increased the risk of death . The way they did that was to rule out any study with less than 10 deaths – when fewer deaths was exactly the outcome they were supposed to be looking for.
The reason they gave for doing that was “because we anticipated that many small trials did not collect mortality data.” We’re not buying it; they used it as a trick to enable them to get the negative result they wanted – to over-write the findings of a long list of original studies.
And here we have authors doing the very same thing in this omega-3 study – and upping the ante slightly. Now the threshold is 50 deaths. Fewer than that and your study is ruled out of the final, supposedly least biased, analysis . . on the grounds that it’s more biased.
We don’t know how they could keep a straight face while saying (our interpretation); “The studies with fewer deaths showed more benefit from omega-3s, so we excluded them.” At least that’s what happened back in 2004 when the first version of this came out.
But this is the 8th update (we think) and they no longer bother to tell you about what they included or excluded in detail, so we can only assume that if they had changed that exclusion they would have told us.
The weird thing is that they are allowed to do it. Nutrition researcher Dr. Steve Hickey has shown that in systematic reviews there is generally control for bias in the included studies, but none for bias in the actual review and its authors.[4,5]
They found not one example of adequate blinding among 100 Cochrane reviews (like this one); they could all be palimpsests. Do we know that they are fake? No, but it doesn’t matter: what we do know is that we can’t trust them. Nor can we trust this Cochrane review. Things haven’t changed since 2004.
Evidence is a waste of data
Evidence is what lawyers and courts use to find someone Guilty or Not Guilty, and we all know how that can go wrong. It’s a binary system: you’re either one or the other. But at least if you’re on trial all the evidence should be about you and whether you did the crime.
In EBM the evidence is all about populations, not about individuals. When a doctor tells you “There’s a 1 in 3 chance this treatment will work” he is required to base that on big studies, or even systematic reviews. You don’t, and you can’t, know what that means for you because very likely you don’t fit the population profile.
As Steve Hickey (again) said, the statistical fallacy underlying all this states that you have one testicle and one ovary – because that’s the population average! The authors of this study update started off with about 2100 papers that looked relevant. They then excluded 90 per cent of them for various reasons – some of them good reasons, some not.
A smarter way to work would be to data-mine them and look for useful information about sub-groups and sub-effects in all the papers. Is there a particular reason omega-3s might work for you and not for others? Perhaps you can’t stand fish, or are allergic to them, and so are deficient in omega-3s.
But the review system doesn’t allow it, it insists on overall conclusions (about populations), and that’s a colossal waste of data. It also confounds the overall finding of the review – it biases it in fact.
Here’s an example: while most subgroups that made it to the final analysis showed a small reduction in risk from taking omega-3s in one form or another (pills, food, whatever), those who got it from supplemented foods, which we understand means stuff like margarine with added omega-3, showed a 4.3-fold death risk increase!
The problem here is that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids cannot be studied alone as if they were a drug. What counts are all the other components of the diet that affect a person’s health.
Processed foods and drinks that contain many unhealthy ingredients can’t be made healthy by adding small doses of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, many processed foods that contain small doses of vitamins and other essential nutrients are unhealthy because they contain large doses of sugar, salt, and harmful ingredients such as preservatives, dyes, and other non-food items.
Why lipids are so important
Part of the problem is that lipids are truly complicated, and not many people, patients, doctors or even scientists, understand them well. You need a good understanding of lipid metabolism to appreciate the difference in metabolism and impact between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, in food such as oily fish) and extracted oils such as EPA and DHA that are only found at high levels in omega-3 supplements.
At these levels they are effectively new to nature; nobody, indeed no mammal, was exposed to really high doses of DHA until we invented fish oil supplements . Miss that fact and you miss the difference between having people eat fresh oily fish or just using omega-3 margarine!
We know from a variety of studies that a diet containing generous portions of green leafy and colorful vegetables and fruits, moderate portions of eggs, fish, and meat, and supplements of adequate doses of essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals) is effective at lowering the risk for cardiovascular disease.
Adequate doses of both omega-3 (in flax oil, walnuts, fish) and omega-6 (in seed oils such as canola, soybean, peanut) fatty acids are essential for health. Although essential, omega-6 fatty acids are thought to contribute to inflammation throughout the body whereas omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory.
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for most body organs including the brain but are found in lower levels than omega-6 fatty acids in most vegetables. Risk for cardiovascular disease can be lowered by adequate doses of vitamins C (3,000-10,000mg/d), D (2,000-10,000 IU/d), E (400-1,200 IU/d), and magnesium (300-600 mg/d) in addition to an excellent diet that includes an adequate dose of omega-3 fatty acids.
(Dr. Damien Downing is a specialist physician practicing in London, and President of the British Society for Ecological Medicine. Robert G. Smith is a physiologist and Research Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School Of Medicine.)
2. Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al., (2005) Review Meta-Analysis?: High-Dosage Vitamin E Supplementation May Increase. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(1), pp.37-46. Available at: http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=718049.
4. Hickey S, Noriega LA. Implications and insights for human adaptive mechatronics from developments in algebraic probability theory, IEEE, UK Workshop on Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM), Staffs, 15-16 Jan 2009.
6. Cortie CH, Else, PL, (2012) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) incorporates into cardiolipin at the expense of linoleic acid (18:2): Analysis and potential implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(11): 15447-15463. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/11/15447
7. Case HS (2017) Orthomolecular Nutrition for Everyone. Turner Publication Co., Nashville, TN. ISBN-13: 978-1681626574
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Many in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.
Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.
Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.
Figure 1 – Basic diagram of fatty acids structure
The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.
Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.
Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.
FATTY ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS
The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top – Omega-3, second – Omega-6, third – Omega-9, bottom – Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.
Figure 2 – fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body
The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).
In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.
Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their “enhanced” derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.
Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.
Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.
Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in “fight or flight” (stress) situations, – the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.
Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.
It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.
Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.
Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS – PATHWAYS
The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.
Figure 3 – Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body
The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.
RESEARCH ON ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.
Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. “Enhanced forms” are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.
In Chapkin’s research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE
Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).
ESSENTIAL FATS PLUS E IS A HIGHLY ADVANCED ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS SUPPLEMENT
OFFERING SPECIAL BENEFITS:
UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!
COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.
% Daily Value†
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
(from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
(from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
* No established Daily Value
† Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.
• Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis • Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels • Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling • Mediate Immune Response • Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity • Dilate or constrict blood vessels • Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes • Are primary constituents of cellular membranes • Regulate the rate at which cells divide • Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues • Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance • Prevent red blood cells from clumping together • Regulate nerve transmission
GENETIC TESTING AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.
We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.
The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.
The following includes abstracts of Chapkin’s published research on essential fatty acids.
Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.
Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.
This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1′-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.
The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).
This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.
Looking for an advanced antioxidant formula? Already using or recommending vitamin C? Curious about cellular Nrf2 activation? Look no further than PRO-C™.
PRO-C™ is among the most effective antioxidant formulas available. It is an HPDI foundational supplement that works most effectively when used with multivitamins, essential fats, and superfoods. However, it is also an excellent standalone formula that can rapidly provide the body with extremely high protection from free radicals.
We ourselves have taken PRO-C daily for many years with excellent results. Our personal experience together with detailed feedback from health professionals and end-users affirms the effectiveness of PRO-C as a super-antioxidant–vitamin C-Nrf2 activator formula.
PRO-C provides 500 mg of buffered vitamin C per capsule (buffered with calcium, magnesium, and zinc) along with grape extract (seed, skin, pulp) and green tea extract (95% polyphenols). In addition, we include a special combination of the “network antioxidants” l-glutathione (reduced), n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), r-lipoic acid, and selenium. Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms support the enzymatic effectiveness of the “network antioxidants”. The formula works so well because this combination of ingredients leverages the antioxidant power of vitamin C, grape extract, green tea extract, and the other nutrients to act synergistically in order to maximize effectiveness.
FORMULATION HISTORY AND THE SCIENCE BEHIND PRO-C™
What you may not know is the history of the development PRO-C and the scientific knowledge on which Dr. Hank Liers based his formulation of it.
Dr. Hank formulated his first product in 1989. It was a potent antioxidant formula he called PYC-C™ (sounds like “pixie”). PYC-C consisted of a combination of buffered Vitamin C (including magnesium, calcium, and zinc ascorbates) and pycnogenols from pine bark.
By 1997 Dr. Hank had gathered a great deal of new scientific information regarding green tea catechins and the nutrients termed “network antioxidants” by Dr. Lester Packer, director of Packer Lab at University of California, Berkeley. Beyond this information, Dr. Hank studied additional research regarding how various nutrients worked together synergistically. At that point, he was ready to formulate the new, improved PRO-C™ super antioxidant formula.
PRO-C combines the ingredients of PYC-C (now known as OPC-C™) and uses grape pulp, skin, and seed extract with green tea extract (with high polyphenols >95% and EpiGalloCatechinGalate (EGCG) >45%), n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), R-lipoic acid, selenium, and coenzyme Vitamins B2 and B6.
HPDI launched PRO-C™ in late 1997. It rapidly became one of our best-selling products. Our customers raved about how effective it was for them if they felt like they were “coming down with something” (like a cold, flu, virus, infection, etc.). Greater skin elasticity greatly helped pregnant women avoid stretch marks and episiotomies. Today, we highly recommend its use together with our other Foundational Supplements to ensure optimal health and anti-aging effects.
THE PRO-C™ SUPER ANTIOXIDANT FORMULA
PRO-C™ super antioxidant formula is extremely synergistic, especially in so far as it increases the body’s ability to quench free radicals in its aqueous (i.e., water-based) compartments. Because antioxidants may become free radicals themselves after they have done their job, the body has developed an elaborate system for recovery of oxidized antioxidants.
Dr. Lester Packer was the primary researcher investigating the synergistic character of antioxidants. He made this statement in his interview with Dr. Richard Passwater after publication of Packer’s The Antioxidant Miracle (1999):
” [The major theme of] The Antioxidant Miracle is that antioxidants work in a coordinated manner. They interact with one another, and this interaction, which we like to call the antioxidant network, is very important to the overall antioxidant defense that we possess. The key members of the antioxidant network are vitamin E and vitamin C, but there are other participants in this network. These are thiol antioxidants, antioxidants that contain sulfur groups in the body. Glutathione perhaps is the best known of these, but there are other sulfur-containing antioxidants that also are very important.”
Dr. Packer continues:
“This whole antioxidant network works like an orchestra depending on individuals who have, of course, different complements of antioxidants depending upon their nutritional regimens and the individuality of their own body metabolisms. The idea behind having a network of antioxidants is that if one antioxidant happens to be deficient the others can compensate and still keep the antioxidant defense system strong.”
The following diagram shows some of the relationships in the antioxidant network and how they support each other.
Figure 1 – Dr. Packer’s Antioxidant Network
We see, for example, reduced glutathione (GSH) has the ability to reduce oxidized Vitamin C back to its unoxidized state. Vitamin C reduces oxidized Vitamin E back to its unoxidized state, and both reduces glutathione and spares it for other important functions, including detoxification and immune enhancement.
Many polyphenols (e.g., oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), anthocyanidins and catechins) found in red grape and green tea extracts spare Vitamin C and glutathione in the body, as well as operate as powerful antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and connective tissue strengtheners.
Grapes provide antioxidant nutrients such as polyphenols, OPCs, anthocyans, and resveratrol.
R-Lipoic Acid (see abstracts below) operates as an antioxidant both in its oxidized and reduced states, reduces the oxidized forms of both Vitamin E and Vitamin C, and and has been shown to enhance glutathione levels. Because several of these substances are able to protect Vitamin E contained in cell membranes, this combination also has a significant beneficial effect on the fat soluble antioxidant status of the body!
The nutrients in PRO-C have been carefully selected and balanced to provide optimal effects, especially as related to free radical protection, detoxification, immune system enhancement, connective tissue strengthening, and reduction of inflammation. PRO-C therefore provides outstanding nutritional support in a wide variety of conditions of poor health, as well as acts to support and maintain a state of health and well-being.
It the last several years the research results on Nrf2 activators have become well known and products developed that take advantage of these nutrients. For details see our blog article Natural Phytochemical Nrf2 Activators for Chemoprevention. Researchers have been studying specifically how enzyme-activating substances such as OPCs and anthocyans activate a transcription factor known as Nrf2 that causes the body to endogenously produce higher levels of a wide variety of protective enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase.
Although we did not know about Nrf2 activators in 1997 when we formulated PRO-C, we have subsequently learned that four of the ingredients in the formula have powerful Nrf2 activity. These include grape seed extract, green tea extract, NAC, and r-lipoic acid. With this knowledge, we now understand that PRO-C provides both powerful external antioxidants (with extremely high ORAC5.0 values) that support redox cycles within the body, but also provides ingredients that allow the body to endogenously produce powerful protective enzymes for even greater free-radical protection and health.
PRO-C™ ANTIOXIDANT FORMULA INGREDIENTS
PRO-C contains buffered vitamin C (in the form of powdered calcium, magnesium, and zinc ascorbates), high-potency grape extract (from grape pulp, skins, and seeds), green tea extract (with>95% polyphenols and >45% EGCG), reduced glutathione, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC), R-lipoic acid, coenzyme forms of vitamin B2 (R5P) and vitamin B6 (P5P), and selenium.
Below we will discuss each ingredient and show some of the research that confirms its effectiveness.
Vitamin C typically is called l-ascorbic acid or ascorbate and is an essential nutrient for humans and other animal species. The term “vitamin C” refers to a number of vitamins that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts (e.g., magnesium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, sodium ascorbate, etc.), and some oxidized forms such as dehydroascorbate and semidehydroascorbate.
Vitamin C is known to perform many critical functions within the body involving detoxification, tissue building, immune enhancement, pain control, and controlling or killing pathogenic organisms. It is also known to be helpful for wound and bone healing, healthy skin and eyes, fighting infections, stress control, toxic exposure, and repairing damaged tissue of all types. For much more information on the many benefits of Vitamin C see our blog article Vitamin C – An Amazing Nutrient.
Below are two abstracts that show some of the beneficial effects of Vitamin C when used with other network antioxidants:
ABSTRACT 1: Exhaustive physical exercise causes oxidation of glutathione status in blood: prevention by antioxidant administration.
Sastre J, Asensi M, Gasco E, Pallardo FV, Ferrero JA, Furukawa T, Vina J
In: Am J Physiol (1992 Nov) 263(5 Pt 2):R992-5
We have studied the effect of exhaustive concentric physical exercise on glutathione redox status and the possible relationship between blood glutathione oxidation and blood lactate and pyruvate levels. Levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in blood increase after exhaustive concentric physical exercise in trained humans. GSSG levels were 72% higher immediately after exercise than at rest. They returned to normal values 1 h after exercise. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels did not change significantly after the exercise. We have found a linear relationship between GSSG-to-GSH and lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in human blood before, during, and after exhaustive exercise. In rats, physical exercise also caused an increase in blood GSSG levels that were 200% higher after physical exercise than at rest. GSH levels did not change significantly. Thus, both in rats and humans, exhaustive physical exercise causes a change in glutathione redox status in blood. We have also found that antioxidant administration, i.e., oral vitamin C, N-acetyl-L- cysteine, or glutathione, is effective in preventing oxidation of the blood glutathione pool after physical exercise in rats.
The effect of glutathione and vitamins A, C, and E on acute skin flap survival.
Hayden RE, Paniello RC, Yeung CS, Bello SL, Dawson SM
In: Laryngoscope (1987 Oct) 97(10):1176-9
Vitamins A, C, and E act as antioxidants and as free radical scavengers in biological systems. Glutathione is involved in several reactions in vitamin metabolism and also plays an important role in cell membrane protection against lipid peroxidation by free radicals. We sought to use these natural defense mechanisms against oxygen free radicals formed during reperfusion of ischemic skin flaps. An acute axial random skin flap model was utilized in the rat. Vitamins or glutathione were administered by oral gastric tube or intravenously in the perioperative period, and survival of the flap was measured at 1 week. Glutathione, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and alpha-D- tocopherol showed mean flap survival of 84% to 89%, each of which was significantly improved over saline controls (67% p less than .0005). The mechanisms and biochemistry of these vitamins, and their interactions with other vitamins and with glutathione, are discussed, along with clinical implications of free radical scavenging and skin flap survival.
Grape extract (seeds, skin, pulp) contain highly bioavailable bioflavonoid complexes that in research studies have been shown to have powerful antioxidant capability. The Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) in grape seed extract are able to strengthen collagen fibers in aging or damaged connective tissue and can act as a preventative against connective tissue degradation.
Some research indicates that anthocyans, which are found in extracts of grape skin and stems (but not in grape seed extract), can reduce oxidized glutathione while at the same time become reduced themselves. In addition, extracts of grape skin and stems (but not those of grape seed extract) contain a material called trans-resveratrol that has been shown to have chemopreventive effects.
ABSTRACT 3: Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Bagchi DJ, Balmoori J, Stohs SJ
In: Gen Pharmacol (1998 May) 30(5):771-6
1. The comparative protective abilities of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) (25-100 mg/kg), vitamin C (100 mg/kg), vitamin E succinate (VES) (100 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (50 mg/kg) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the hepatic and brain tissues, as well as production of reactive oxygen species by peritoneal macrophages, were assessed. 2. Treatment of mice with GSPE (100 mg/kg), vitamin C, VES and beta-carotene decreased TPA-induced production of reactive oxygen species, as evidenced by decreases in the chemiluminescence response in peritoneal macrophages by approximately 70%, 18%, 47% and 16%, respectively, and cytochrome c reduction by approximately 65%, 15%, 37% and 19%, respectively, compared with controls. 3. GSPE, vitamin C, VES and beta-carotene decreased TPA-induced DNA fragmentation by approximately 47%, 10%, 30% and 11%, respectively, in the hepatic tissues, and 50%, 14%, 31% and 11%, respectively, in the brain tissues, at the doses that were used. Similar results were observed with respect to lipid peroxidation in hepatic mitochondria and microsomes and in brain homogenates. 4. GSPE exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of TPA- induced lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in liver and brain, as well as a dose-dependent inhibition of TPA-induced reactive oxygen species production in peritoneal macrophages. 5. GSPE and other antioxidants provided significant protection against TPA-induced oxidative damage, with GSPE providing better protection than did other antioxidants at the doses that were employed.
ABSTRACT 4: Clinical and capillaroscopic evaluation of chronic uncomplicated venous insufficiency with procyanidins extracted from vitis vinifera
Costantini A, De Bernardi T, Gotti A
In: Minerva Cardioangiol (1999 Jan-Feb) 47(1-2):39-46
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of non-complicated chronic venous insufficiency is a current and well-debated topic. The introduction of new products with action on the venous system, improved knowledge on the physiopathology of venous insufficiency and the possibility provided by new analytical instruments, have given new impulse to the consolidation of the clinical value of phlebotonics in this indication. METHODS: In light of this, 24 patients with non-complicated chronic venous insufficiency were treated with oral administration of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (Pycnogenols-OPC) 100 mg/day. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment, an instrumental evaluation by optical probe capillaroscope was employed in addition to the traditional subjective clinical parameters: swelling, itching, heaviness and pain. The videocapillaroscope examination was performed at the lower third of the leg and the first toe. Edema in the capillaroscopic field, the number of observable capillaries and the capillary dilatation were the parameter chosen to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. All patients completed the study with no reports of adverse events during the period of observation. RESULTS: The results obtained show a positive clinical response (improved or absent symptoms) in over 80% of patients, with significant improvement of symptoms already evident after the first 10 days of treatment. The mechanism of action of the OPCs explains the rapid reduction of the swelling of the lower limbs and correlated with this are the other evaluable symptoms: heaviness and itching. Particularly striking results were observed for itching and pain which completely disappeared during the course of therapy in 80% and 53% of the patients respectively. Noteworthy is the good correlation between the clinical and instrumental data, with improvement in a total of 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the course of this clinical experience, with evident improvement already during the first weeks of treatment, the absence of adverse events added to the benefit of a once-a-day administration, justify the use of OPC in the treatment of non-complicated chronic venous insufficiency.
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven phase II detoxification enzymes. In this study, induction of phase II enzymes via Nrf2/ARE activation in the cytoprotective effect of crude polyphenol extract (CPE), oligomeric procyanidin fraction (OPF), and polymeric procyanidin fraction (PPF) from defatted grape seeds in HepG2 cells was evaluated. Among these treatments, the treatment with PPF significantly increased Nrf2 protein expression in the nuclear fraction. Treating the samples increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, and PPF significantly increased the levels of phase II enzymes. Cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were effectively reduced by PPF. These results suggest that pretreatment with PPF shows a cytoprotective effect by inhibiting ROS production and inducing HO-1 and NQO1 expression via Nrf2 activation in HepG2 cells.
GREEN TEA EXTRACT
Green tea extract is obtained from the unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis for which numerous biological activities have been reported including: antimutagenic, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and protective against tumorigenesis. Below we have selected a few of the many abstracts we have on file showing the benefit of green tea extract.
Green tea leaves are high in antioxidant polyphenols and catechins.
ABSTRACT 6: Enhancement of antioxidant and phase II enzymes by oral feeding of green tea polyphenols in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice: possible role in cancer chemoprevention.
Khan SG, Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H
In: Cancer Res (1992 Jul 15) 52(14):4050-2
Following the oral feeding of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) in drinking water, an increase in the activities of antioxidant and phase II enzymes in skin, small bowel, liver, and lung of female SKH-1 hairless mice was observed. GTP feeding (0.2%, w/v) to mice for 30 days significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and quinone reductase in small bowel, liver, and lungs, and glutathione S-transferase in small bowel and liver. GTP feeding to mice also resulted in considerable enhancement of glutathione reductase activity in liver. In general, the increase in antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities was more pronounced in lung and small bowel as compared to liver and skin. The significance of these results can be implicated in relation to the cancer chemopreventive effects of GTP against the induction of tumors in various target organs.
ABSTRACT 7: INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SIX GREEN TEA CATECHINS AND CAFFEINE ON THE GROWTH OF FOUR SELECTED HUMAN TUMOR CELL LINES. In: Anticancer Drugs (1996 Jun) 7(4):461-8
Institutional address: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy University of Arizona Tucson 85721 USA.
Green tea is an aqueous infusion of dried unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (family Theaceae) from which numerous biological activities have been reported including antimutagenic, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antitumor and cancer preventive activities. From the aqueous-alcoholic extract of green tea leaves, six compounds (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)- epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, were isolated and purified. Together with (+)-catechin, these compounds were tested against each of four human tumor cells lines (MCF-7 breast carcinoma, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-427 lung carcinoma and UACC-375 melanoma). The three most potent green tea components against all four tumor cell lines were EGCG, GC and EGC. EGCG was the most potent of the seven green tea components against three out of the four cell lines (i.e. MCF-7 breast cancer, HT-29 colon cancer and UACC-375 melanoma). On the basis of these extensive in vitro studies, it would be of considerable interest to evaluate all three of these components in comparative preclinical in vivo animal tumor model systems before final decisions are made concerning which of these potential chemopreventive drugs should be taken into broad clinical trials.
GLUTATHIONE AND N-ACETYL-L-CYSTEINE (NAC)
Glutathione and NAC (a major precursor of glutathione) both provide important protection against toxins and free radicals, and can strengthen the immune system. Glutathione is considered to be one of the most important protective substances in the human body with almost 60% of liver detoxification accounted for by this key substance. In addition, glutathione is one of the most potent anti-viral substances known.
Some research has indicated that glutathione may not be able to enter easily into certain types of cells, but NAC is able to enter these cells and be converted into glutathione once inside the cell. Thus, the combination of glutathione and NAC appear to be more potent than either alone.
ABSTRACT 8 GSH rescue by N-acetylcysteine.
Ruffmann R Wendel A
In: Klin Wochenschr (1991 Nov 15) 69(18):857-62
Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the main intracellular low molecular weight thiol. GSH acts as a nucleophilic scavenger and as an enzyme-catalyzed antioxidant in the event of electrophilic/oxidative tissue injury. Therefore, GSH has a major role as a protector of biological structures and functions. GSH depletion has been recognized as a hazardous condition during paracetamol intoxication. Conversely, GSH rescue, meaning recovery of the protective potential of GSH by early administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), has been found to be life-saving. Lack of GSH and electrophilic/oxidative injury have been identified among the causes of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Experimental and early clinical data (in ARDS) point to the role of NAC in the treatment of these conditions. Recently, orally given NAC has been shown to enhance the levels of GSH in the liver, in plasma, and notably in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rescue of GSH through NAC needs to be appreciated as an independent treatment modality for an array of different disease, all of which have one feature in common: pathogenetically relevant loss of GSH.
ABSTRACT 9 Cysteine and glutathione concentrations in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after treatment with N-acetylcysteine.
Bridgeman MM Marsden M MacNee W Flenley DC Ryle AP
In: Thorax (1991 Jan) 46(1):39-42
N-acetylcysteine (600 mg/day) was given to patients by mouth for five days before bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine whether N-acetylcysteine could increase the concentrations of the antioxidant reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1-3 hours (group 2, n = 9) and 16-20 hours (group 3, n = 10) after the last dose of N-acetylcysteine and the values were compared with those in a control group receiving no N-acetylcysteine (group 1, n = 8). N-Acetylcysteine was not detected in plasma or lavage fluid. Plasma concentrations of cysteine, the main metabolite of N-acetylcysteine and a precursor of reduced glutathione, were greater in the groups receiving treatment (groups 2 and 3) than in group 1. Cysteine concentrations in lavage fluid were similar in the three groups. Concentrations of reduced glutathione were greater in both plasma and lavage fluid in group 2 than in group 1. These data suggest that N-acetylcysteine given by mouth is rapidly deacetylated to cysteine, with resulting increases in the concentrations of cysteine in plasma and of reduced glutathione in plasma and the airways, which thus temporarily increase the antioxidant capacity of the lung.
R-LIPOIC ACID / ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID
R-Lipoic Acid is normally made at low levels in the human body, where it functions primarily as an important metabolic nutrient in the conversion of pyruvic acid into acetyl coenzyme A. As such, it plays a crucial role in the metabolism of both fats and carbohydrates into energy. In addition, r-lipoic acid functions as an extremely powerful antioxidant capable of trapping many different types of free radicals in the body.
Because it is both water and fat soluble, lipoic acid is able to operate in a broader range of body tissues than most other antioxidants. Its small size allows lipoic acid to enter areas of the body not easily accessible to many other substances; this allows lipoic acid, for example, to enter the cell nucleus and prevent free-radical damage to DNA.
Because it is such a powerful antioxidant and can easily function as such in both a reduced and oxidized state, lipoic acid is able to protect other important antioxidants such as glutathione, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C. R-lipoic acid is also able to chelate heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, free iron, and free copper out of the body.
Below we provide relevant scientific abstracts from our database regarding R-Lipoic acid.
ABSTRACT 10: Alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.
Packer L Witt EH Tritschler HJ
In: Free Radic Biol Med (1995 Aug) 19(2):227-50
alpha-Lipoic acid, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions, has recently gained considerable attention as an antioxidant. Lipoate, or its reduced form, dihydrolipoate, reacts with reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. It also protects membranes by interacting with vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. In addition to its antioxidant activities, dihydrolipoate may exert prooxidant actions through reduction of iron. alpha-Lipoic acid administration has been shown to be beneficial in a number of oxidative stress models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes (both alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid exhibit hydrophobic binding to proteins such as albumin, which can prevent glycation reactions), cataract formation, HIV activation, neurodegeneration, and radiation injury. Furthermore, lipoate can function as a redox regulator of proteins such as myoglobin, prolactin, thioredoxin and NF-kappa B transcription factor. We review the properties of lipoate in terms of (1) reactions with reactive oxygen species; (2) interactions with other antioxidants; (3) beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.
Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is an important antioxidant that is capable of regenerating other antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which α-LA regenerates GSH remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate whether α-LA regenerates GSH by activation of Nrf2 to alleviate cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we found that cadmium induced cell death by depletion of GSH through inactivation of Nrf2. Addition of α-LA to cadmium-treated cells reactivated Nrf2 and regenerated GSH through elevating the Nrf2-downstream genes γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) and GR, both of which are key enzymes for GSH synthesis. However, blocking Nrf2 with brusatol in the cells co-treated with α-LA and cadmium reduced the mRNA and the protein levels of γ-GCL and GR, thus suppressed GSH regeneration by α-LA. Our results indicated that α-LA activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, which upregulated the transcription of the enzymes for GSH synthesis and therefore GSH contents to alleviate cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.
Selenium has been shown by clinical research to be a key mineral in the body’s defenses against free radicals and has been shown to be a major factor in reducing the symptoms of HIV infections and in the prevention of tumors. Selenium is used in conjunction with glutathione to form the powerful enzyme glutathione peroxidase that is responsible for detoxification of peroxides formed during the process of aerobic metabolism in humans and other animals.
ABSTRACT 12 Serum selenium concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis.
In: Ann Rheum Dis (1991 Jun) 50(6):376-8
O’Dell JR, Lemley-Gillespie S, Palmer WR, Weaver AL, Moore GF, Klassen LW
Selenium is a trace element and an essential part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which protects cells from oxidative damage. Selenium has been shown to have antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and immune altering effects. Serum selenium concentrations in 101 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis were found to be significantly lower than those in 29 normal, healthy controls (mean (SD) 148 (42) v 160 (25) micrograms/l) and also lower than those in eight patients with fibrositis (148 (42) v 166 (25) micrograms/l). It is speculated that serum selenium concentrations may modulate the effect of viral or other infections in subjects with the appropriate genetic background and in this way enhance the development or progression of rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT 13 Studies on selenium in top athletes.
Dragan I, Ploesteanu E, Cristea E, Mohora M, Dinu V, Troescu VS
In: Physiologie (1988 Oct-Dec) 25(4):187-90
The authors performed a controlled trial in 18 top athletes (9 weight lifters and 9 rowers, girls) in order to make evident some chronic and acute effects (antioxidant) of selenium. Nonprotein–SH (essential glutathione), lipid peroxides (MDA-malondialdehyde), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (G-6-PDH) and fructose-1,6- diphosphate aldolase in serum, have been recorded initially on basal conditions, after 3 weeks of treatment (100 micrograms/day selenium or placebo) and again after 3 weeks of treatment, also on basal conditions, when crossing over the groups (between a free interval of 10 days). In another trial we registered these parameters on basal conditions and after two hours of hard training accompanied by a per oral administration of 150 micrograms selenium (respectively placebo). The results show significant changes under selenium treatment of the peroxides, G-6-PDH and light changes, not significant of the nonprotein–SH, changes which could suggest an antioxidant effect of this element.
VITAMINS B2 and B6 IN COENZYME FORMS
Vitamin B2 as coenzyme riboflavin-5-phosphate is a key vitamin that supports the regeneration of glutathione (via glutathione reductase). Vitamin B6 as coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate is a key vitamin that supports the ability of glutathione to combine with toxic substances (via glutathione transferase) in the process of eliminating them from the body. They are especially effective in their coenzyme forms which allows them to be directly utilized by the body starting in the intestinal tract.
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM, AND ZINC
Magnesium, zinc, and calcium synergistically work with (and enhance the effects of) the other ingredients in PRO-C. Minerals are especially needed as active components of enzymes that drive metabolic activity. For example, magnesium is required in the functioning of more than 325 types of enzymes.
PRO-C™ SUPER ANTIOXIDANT FORMULA BENEFITS
HIGHLY EFFECTIVE VITAMIN C FORMULA PLUS ANTIOXIDANTS. A complete vitamin C formula, a powerful antioxidant Formula, and Nrf2 activator combined in a single advanced supplement!
POWERFUL, SYNERGISTIC FREE-RADICAL QUENCHING FORMULA. PRO-C™ components work together to quench free radicals in your body. Vitamin C enables grape seed extract to function more effectively, and conversely grape seed extract potentiates vitamin C. Green tea extract boosts ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) value.
PROVIDES SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF POWERFUL NRF2 ACTIVATORS (from Grape Extract, Green Tea Extract, NAC, and R-Lipoic Acid) that stimulate the production of the body’s own protective antioxidants including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase.
SUPERIOR, BUFFERED (NON-ACIDIC) FORM OF VITAMIN C. Mineral Ascorbates never acidify your body, keeping you pH balanced. Staying alkaline is an important element in maintaining a healthy body.
RAPID ASSIMILATION. Capsule form ensures rapid uptake and assimilation in the body. You may also empty capsule contents into water, food, or directly Into mouth, if desired. Good, mildly tart taste!
COMPOSITION OF PRO-C™ SUPER ANTIOXIDANT FORMULA
One (1) vegetarian capsule of PRO-C provides the following percentages of the Daily Value:
% Daily Value
Vitamin C (from mineral ascorbates)
BioVin® Grape Extract
Green Tea Extract
Calcium (from calcium ascorbate)
Magnesium (from magnesium ascorbate)
Zinc (from zinc ascorbate)
Vitamin B2 (from riboflavin-5′-phosphate)
Vitamin B6 (from pyridoxal-5′-phosphate)
Selenium (from l-selenomethionine)
* No established Daily Value
DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement take 1–3 capsules or more daily in divided doses (i.e., spread out over the day), or as recommended by a health care professional. It initially may be useful to take up to 6 capsules per day in divided doses for one week. The contents of the capsule may be emptied into juice or food, as needed.
INGREDIENTS: PRO-C™ SUPER ANTIOXIDANT FORMULA contains only the highest-quality USP grade magnesium ascorbate, USP grade calcium ascorbate, BioVin® grape extract (greater than 75% polyphenols, 93% OPC, greater than 3.5% anthocyanidins from grape pulp, skins, and seeds, and a small amount of trans resveratrol), green tea extract (95% min. polyphenols and 45% min. EGCG), l-glutathione (reduced), USP grade n-acetyl-l-cysteine, USP grade zinc ascorbate, r-(+)-lipoic acid, riboflavin-5′-phosphate, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, l-selenomethionine, the smallest amounts of microcrystalline cellulose and silica in a vegetarian capsule.
PRO-C™ does not contain wheat, rye, oats, corn antigen, barley, gluten, soy, egg, dairy, yeast, sugar, sulfates, phosphates (other than coenzyme forms), fats, chlorides, GMOs, wax, preservatives, colorings, or artificial flavorings.
Looking for a high-quality, natural KIDS MULTIVITAMIN? Me, too. Do you look in vitamin stores, natural foods stores, and online marketplaces—in vain? I have.
A couple years ago, HPDI’s formulator, my father Hank Liers, PhD decided to reformulate our already excellent kids multivitamin—the Kids Mighty-Multi!—to make it better. His intentions were good: the world’s best designer of adult multivitamins would improve the best children’s vitamin.
My quandary? While Dr. Hank was busy at work reformulating our kids multi, the existing—and uber-excellent—original Kids Mighty-Multi! went out-of-stock, and never came back. Suddenly, my seven-year-old son’s “go-to” multivitamin was gone…indefinitely!
I took action—kids vitamins became my obsession—because I wanted the best multivitamin for my child. I searched everywhere for high-quality kids vitamins. Leaving no stone unturned, we tried them all—including organic, whole food, gluten-free, vegan-friendly brands with glossy labels. Did we find good ones? Not really.
What DID we find? Well, not much—and a lot. That is, not much in the way of high potency, high-purity, or advanced forms, like coenzyme vitamins. And a lot of false promises and junk ingredients. Like sugar and corn syrup and GMO ingredients—even from “reputable” brands.
Not to mention artificial sweeteners, colorings, flavorings, as well as toxic preservatives and fillers, which are the de facto standard in conventional products. Natural products are better—not always by as much as you’d expect.
Looking for a good children’s multivitamin? Look no further than chewable Kids Mighty-Multi!
MY MULTIVITAMIN WISHLIST
Now in label-induced miasmic SHOCK…I proposed a reversal of terms. I simply wanted a lot of good things—like complete, balanced nutrients—and not much in the way of toxic additives.
Reeling, I scrawled a brief manifesto or “wishlist” for my ideal kids multivitamin:
“Great taste, high-purity, balanced nutrients at optimal levels, chewable; sugar free, non-GMO. No artificial ingredients, especially toxic sweeteners like aspartame or sucralose. No harmful additives or preservatives like sodium benzoate, BHT, or propylene glycol (no antifreeze please!); a few good-for-you functional ingredients.”
Was I asking *too* much? No way. Yet, I was giving up on finding a suitable kids multivitamin. My son instead began taking an HPDI adult multivitamin (Multi Two Caps) we scaled to his sixty five-pound weight. The taste wasn’t great—so we opened capsules directly into his juices and smoothies—because he’s not ready to swallow capsules or tablets whole. At best…a partial solution.
KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI! BACK — BETTER THAN EVER!
Then. It. Happened. Lighting struck—HPDI’s Kids Mighty-Multi! is BACK! Turns out my dad finished reformulating the world’s best kids multivitamin. He broke the news with a smile. Stunned and unbelieving…I took a breath. My heart skipped a beat. Then I grabbed a bottle!
Who knew it would take two years?—and now, who cares!? This month, HPDI proudly introduces a *new* Kids Mighty Multi!. Worth the wait? Yes. Because the new version is better than ever.
I’ve thrown away my wishlist. My search is over. Yours may be, too. Because no kids multivitamin comes *close* to Kids Mighty-Multi!. See the comparison chart and nutrient table (below).
A SERIOUS VITAMIN FOR KIDS – FINALLY!
What makes the new Kids Mighty-Multi! so good, and so much better? Let me count the ways. Here is a summary of benefits before I dive into discussing them in greater detail.
• Kids and adults love the taste!
• Full-spectrum of balanced, essential nutrients needed for creating, supporting, and maintaining excellent health for your child. Includes natural coenzyme form vitamins and Krebs’ cycle bionutrients that work with young bodies to provide energy for metabolic processes, healing, and optimal health.
• Bioavailable vitamin and mineral carriers the body recognizes and can assimilate rapidly. Plus, multiple carriers of individual nutrients ensure assimilation. Chewable form speeds uptake in the body.
• Variety of well-known herbal ingredients, including quercetin, grape extract, turmeric, broccoli powder, and octacosanol
• Complete, balanced supply of carotenoids, including beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein
• Functional ingredients built into every aspect of the formula, including the taste-enhancing package, herbal ingredients, and cofactors. Functional ingredients serve multiple purposes in supporting health.
• Flavored using only healthy, natural sweeteners and taste enhancers, including mannitol, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (from chicory root), organic beet root powder, natural fruit flavor, xylitol, and stevia leaf extract. Taste enhancers exhibiting additional positive benefits (i.e., prebiotic effects, cavity prevention, and antioxidant action).
• NO refined sugars, no corn syrup, and…NO GMOs!
• NO artificial colorings or flavorings, artificial sweeteners (like aspartame, saccharin, or sucralose), or hydrogenated vegetable oils
• Excludes common food source allergens like wheat, corn, soy, and dairy
• Excludes unnecessary excipients, including fillers, binders, and additives
• Foundational formula ideal for providing basic nutrients for health. A high-quality multivitamin is the first step toward a complete nutritional supplement regimen. Formulated to work well with other HPDI foundational formulas, such as vitamin C / antioxidant formulas (like PRO-C™) and essential fatty acids (like Essential Fats plus E).
TASTE-ENHANCING COMPLEX: FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS
Kids Mighty-Multi! tastes GREAT! Kids and adults LOVE the taste. From the perspective of your child’s taste buds, that’s *all* that matters.
But I want to talk a bit about the importance of healthy sweeteners…and how the best sweeteners perform double duty as health promoters.
WHY does Kids Mighty-Multi! taste so good? (Did I mention it contains NO refined sugars—or any artificial sweeteners or flavorings?)
Because Dr. Liers created a natural taste-enhancing complex. This taste-enhancing package includes xylitol, mannitol, FOS (fructooligosaccharides), beet root juice powder, natural fruit flavors, and stevia leaf extract.
Dr. Hank selected healthy, functional ingredients—as much as possible—in order to enhance the taste. That means these taste enhancers are not only NOT unhealthy like the refined sugars, corn syrups, and artificial sweeteners I found in so many other kids vitamins. But they are GOOD for you!
• Mannitol – Natural polyol sweetener with added benefits as an antioxidant. Mannitol surprisingly has a very powerful effect on the hydroxyl free-radical. (see: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9090754). Mannitol serves double duty as a healthy sweetener and important hydroxyl radical free-radical trapper.
• Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (from chicory root) – Naturally sweet with no or low glycemic index. It is also a prebiotic that supports the growth of beneficial bacteria.
• Beet Root Powder (organic) – Naturally sweetens and colors Kids Mighty-Multi!. Beet is a functional ingredient providing methyl donors and easily assimilable iron. Moreover, Dr. Benjamin S. Frank found beets contain an amino acid the body uses to create its own dietary nucleic acids and a nutrient important to brain function (No-Aging Diet, 81).
• Berry & Fruit Extracts / Flavors – Mixed berry, strawberry, raspberry, and pomegranate. These berry extracts provide extremely good, fruity taste—bursting with berry flavors!
• Stevia Extract – Natural sweetens with little or no glycemic value. Kids Mighty-Multi! contains a newer, improved stevia extract which is de-bittered
• Malic Acid – Provides a naturally tart taste, supports the utilization of magnesium, and feeds into the Krebs’ cycle that makes cellular energy (ATP)
Why is choosing “good-for-you” functional sweeteners and taste enhancers important?
Because despite what adults might wish, sweeteners still comprise the largest percentage of kids multivitamins by weight. That means your child will be ingesting significant amounts (of whatever these sweeteners are) relative to the size of their multivitamin.
Who wants the bulk of their child’s multivitamin intake comprised of sugars, corn syrup, sucralose, or worse (think aspartame)? This is the reason natural sweeteners providing functional benefits make all the difference for health.
COMPLETENESS MATTERS – A LOT!
Kids Mighty-Multi! is nothing if not complete. As formulated by Dr. Hank Liers, it provides therapeutic levels of all essential vitamins, minerals, cofactors, and much more.
If you read labels (like I do), you’ll see most kids vitamins are “hit-or-miss.” They provide certain nutrients, but often completely miss others—usually with no rhyme or reason. (What was its formulator thinking?)
Missing important nutrients is bad for consumers—like you and your child—because all nutrients require other nutrients to “do a body good.” It’s called synergy, and it’s the way our cells are designed to work.
That means if you obtain sufficient amounts of a specific nutrient, but not enough of another, you may be unable to effectively utilize the nutrient you have—because utilization requires the nutrient you *don’t* have. Catch-22, huh? I’ll talk more about this later.
Do your child—and yourself—a favor: choose a complete multivitamin like Kids Mighty-Multi!.
Kids Mighty-Multi! is nothing if not COMPLETE. (Tablets in photo appear larger than actual size.)
ADVANCED FORMS OF NUTRIENTS…LIKE YOU’VE NEVER SEEN
Then, there are advanced forms of nutrients, like coenzyme B vitamins. Most kids vitamins (and adult multivitamins) offer you the B complex vitamins as synthetic forms. How can you tell? Well, coenzyme vitamin B1 in Kids Mighty-Multi! is from Thiamin Diphosphate and is very different from synthetic “thiamine HCl.” Vitamin B2 is from Riboflavin-5′-Phosphate is not synthetic “riboflavin.” The vitamin B6 is from Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate is not “pyridoxine HCl.” And so on.
What about vitamin B12 as toxic “cyanocobalamin”? Never. Kids Mighty-Multi! provides coenzyme B12 as methylcobalamin. Other brands sometimes use this form, but then provide synthetic forms for other B vitamins. That makes sense—NOT.
Sure, coenzyme B vitamins cost more to source. But the truth is, your body requires far less coenzyme form vitamins because they are the natural forms found in foods—you easily assimilate and utilize them. Kids Mighty-Multi! doesn’t need large amounts of coenzyme vitamins to give you big benefits.
Meanwhile, synthetic forms are not as easily assimilated—most go through a complex enzymatic breakdown before the body can use them. In some cases (for example if your child lacks certain enzymes due to genetics), syntethic forms cannot be broken down—or used—at all!
Case in point: Folate. Most kids vitamins give you “folic acid,” which is synthetic vitamin B1. A large percentage of the population (including me) lacks the gene providing the enzyme required to process folic acid. If folic acid builds up in cells (because it can’t be broken down), then it can be toxic. Solution: we use coenzyme folate—or 5-MTHF (5-methyl tetrahydrofolate) in Kids Mighty-Multi!. Problem solved.
Recall I said Kids Mighty-Multi! is complete?—and the importance of completeness in a multivitamin? Well, for example, if your kids’ multivitamin only provides synthetic vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCl), it won’t be convertable into its biologically active (coenzyme) form without coenzyme vitamin B1 (Riboflavin-5′-Phosphate).
Did you catch that? To convert Pyridoxine HCl (synthetic vitamin B6) to its usable coenzyme form Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate, you need coenzyme Riboflavin (Riboflavin-5′-Phosphate). You need a coenzyme form of one B vitamin in order to convert another B vitamin to its coenzyme form!
If you have only synthetic forms of these B vitamins, your body must go through multiple conversion processes in order to first convert synthetic Riboflavin into coenzyme Riboflavin so that you can convert synthetic vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl) into its coenzyme B6 form (Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate).
Yes, you can *survive* on synthetic forms of B vitamins. But why make your body work so hard? Why survive when you can *thrive* (with coenzyme vitamins)?
Why other kids vitamins don’t include coenzyme forms is BEYOND ME. If other brands go with conventional (and sometimes toxic) synthetic forms, so be it. Run, and go with Kids Mighty-Multi!.
Other advanced forms include vitamin D as D3 (cholecalciferol), vitamin K as K1 and K2 (Menaquinone-7), and minerals using Krebs’ cycle carriers (like citrates, malates, fumarates, succinates, and aspartates) that are best recognized and utilized in the body because they plug into the body’s energy (ATP) production system.
KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI!™ NUTRIENT TABLE
% Daily Value
(as beta-carotene from Dunaliella salinas)
(from potassium, magnesium, and calcium ascorbates)
Vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol)
Vitamin E (from d-alpha tocopheryl succinate and 5 mg natural mixed tocopherols)
Vitamin K (10 mcg as phylloquinone (K1) and 5 mcg as MK-7 (K2))
Vitamin B1 (from thiamin diphosphate)
Vitamin B2 (from riboflavin-5′-phosphate)
Vitamin B3 (80% from niacinamide and 20% from niacin)
Pantothenic Acid (from calcium pantothenate)
Vitamin B6 (from pyridoxal-5′-phosphate)
Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)
Folate (from 5-MTHF – Quatrefolic®†)
Biotin (pure crystalline)
Magnesium (from malate)
Calcium (from Krebs cycle bionutrients)
Potassium (from citrate)
Zinc (from citrate)
Iron (from fumarate)
Manganese (from citrate)
Copper (from aspartate)
Chromium (from polynicotinate)
Molybdenum (from citrate)
Selenium (from l-selenomethionine)
Choline (from bitartrate)
Inositol (pure crystalline)
Quercetin (as dihydrate)
Turmeric (from Curcuma longa) (root)
Broccoli Sprouts Powder
Grape Extract (Vitis vinifera) (from seed, skin, and stem)
Lycopene (tomato extract) (fruit)
Boron (from glycinate and aspartate)
Lutein (from Calendula officinalis) (flower)
Octacosanol (from policosanol)
Vanadium (from BGOV – bis glycinato oxo vanadium)
* No established Daily Value
† Quatrefolic® is a registered trademark of Gnosis SPD
SCALABLE DOSING – CALLING ALL KIDS – AND ADULTS!
Maybe the best feature of Kids Mighty-Multi! is scalable dosing. Scalability makes it suitable for children and youth of all sizes—and adults, too!
Glancing at Kids Mighty-Multi!‘s label, you might assume it’s as low potency as the most kids’ vitamins available in stores. Not so fast.
Because Dr. Hank designed this multivitamin for everyone, including adults. How do I know? Because he told me: he takes these chewables himself!
How does it work? You simply take two (2) tablets per 20 pounds of body weight—up to six tablets—for kids. But since most older kids and adults weigh more than 60 pounds, you can take 8–10+ tablets and approximate the nutrition you would get from your regular adult vitamin. How cool is that!
Scalable dosing works well for people who don’t like swallowing capsules or tablets, or who prefer a good-tasting chewable. And who doesn’t, sometimes? It is especially useful for traveling because the entire family can use it.
In my case, I usually take four capsules per day of Hank & Brian’s Mighty Multi-Vite! , which my favorite adult multivitamin, and the inspiration for creating the Kids Mighty-Multi!. Yet, there are many days when I thrill to the taste of the new chewable kids multivitamin—knowing I get a significant amount of nutritional value. That means a lot. A lot of goodness. And not much to worry about.
Dr. Hank Liers pulled out the stops in formulating Kids Mighty-Multi!
CHOOSE KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI!
You’ve got choices. You can go online or to your local natural market, pharmacy, or big box store and fill up on whatever kids vitamins you find. Take your chances. Or you can try Kids Mighty-Multi! to discover how good a children’s multivitamin can (and should) be—a truly superior formula.
Choose our awesome kids multivitamin. Dr. Hank did his job. We’re 110% confident it meets—or exceeds—the needs and expectations of your child, and likely you, too. And definitely those of your clients, if you’re a health professional.
Of course, you’ve got a brain. But this choice is a “no-brainer.” Go for Kids Mighty Multi!. Your kids will never go back to their old multivitamin. And they’ll be healthier for it.
I have written extensively regarding the benefits HPDI’s PRO-C™ and Ultimate Protector™ antioxidant formulas. Based upon my experience with these formulas they are among the most effective antioxidant formulas available.
Both antioxidant formulas are included in HPDI’s system of foundational supplements and work most effectively when used with multivitamins, essential fats, and superfoods.
Yet, both formulas also are excellent standalone products that can rapidly provide the body with extremely high protection against free radicals.
We are often asked “which of these two antioxidant formulas should I take?” My answer usually is to take both formulas. I personally take both of them on a daily basis.
Below I will briefly show the reason my answer is to take both formulas. I include information showing the relationship, in terms of ingredients of the two formulas (per serving of three (3) capsules daily of PRO-C and six (6) capsules daily of Ultimate Protector).
The products together contain nine (9) unique PRO-C™ ingredients, eight (8) unique Ultimate Protector™ ingredients, and three (3) overlapping ingredients.
DISCUSSION OF ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS
When PRO-C™ was first released in 1997 there were few publications available regarding Nrf2 ingredients and their benefits. The product design was based on the work of Dr. Lester Packer and his work done on the “Antioxidant Network” showing how nutrients such as Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Glutathione, and Lipoic acid work in a redox network to regenerate key nutrients in the body (see Figure 1. below)
Figure 1. – Dr. Packer’s Antioxidant Network
At that time the powerful antioxidant formulas of Grape Seed Extract and Green Tea Extract were well known, but their powerful Nrf2 effects were not discovered until later. These ingredients are able to trap free radicals and conserve the body’s store of network antioxidants.
Also, the Nrf2 effects of NAC and Lipoic acid were not known at the time, but their powerful effects on the body were known to support the production of glutathione. Additionally, the super powerful glutathione (reduced) was included with supporting coenzymes B2 (from riboflavin 5′-phosphate) and B6 (from pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) that allow the enzymes glutathione reductase and transferase to function at a higher level.
From the beginning of the design process, Ultimate Protector™ (UP) was focused on creating a highly effective Nrf2 activator formula with outstanding antioxidant effects. Our understanding was that a very broad spectrum of plant polyphenols including flavonoids, anthocyandins, oligoproanthocyanidins (OPCs), etc. would deliver the best results.
We selected Futureceuticals Anthocomplete™, CoffeeBerry® Forte, Vitaberry® Plus, and VitaVeggie® in order to accomplish this and added Curcumin 95%, and Trans-Resveratrol 98% because of the powerful scientific findings regarding Nrf2 activation for these two ingredients. We found out later in testing that this combination of ingredients produces very high ORAC5.0 values (486,000 units/serving of six capsules) and works effectively against all of the primary types of free radicals in the body.
WHY TAKE BOTH PRO-C™ AND ULTIMATE PROTECTOR™ ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS?
Venn diagram showing unique and overlapping ingredients in PRO-C and Ultimate Protector.
There are 29 unique Nrf2 activator ingredients in Ultimate Protector (UP) and four (4) non-overlapping Nrf2 activator ingredients in PRO-C. Thus by taking both formulas you are able to receive 33 identifiable Nrf2 activator ingredients (870 mg). The amount of unique Nrf2 ingredients is probably significantly more than this because most of the identifiable ingredients contain a range of plant polyphenols.
Other unique ingredients of each formula include glutathione – reduced (60 mg), malic acid (500 mcg), zinc (6 mg), selenium (30 mcg), B2 (3 mg) and B6 (3 mg) from coenzyme forms, and Bioperine (7.5 mg) (for enhanced absorption of nutrients). These are important ingredients to have the formulas work more effectively together.
The overlapping ingredients in the formula include Vitamin C (3 gm – 1.5 gm from each formula), calcium (130 mg – 70 mg from PRO-C & 60 mg from UP), magnesium (130 mg – 70 mg from PRO-C & 60 mg from UP), and a little grape seed extract (~10 mg). We view this to be very positive especially because we believe that most people should take in at least 3 grams daily of Vitamin C. Equal amounts of calcium and magnesium balance each other in the body and have many important functions such as being part of critical enzymes.
SOURCES & RESOURCES
The Antioxidant Miracle. Lester Packer, PhD, and Carol Coleman. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999.