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ULTIMATE PROTECTOR+ INGREDIENTS – CHOKEBERRY (ARONIA)

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD aronia (chokeberry) nrf2 ultimate protectorUltimate Protector+ contains chokeberry (aronia), as well as components from 12+ different fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Each of these ingredients contain substances that may be considered to be polyphenols, antioxidants and Nrf2 activators. In this article, I explore the ingredient chokeberry (aronia) which is a component of SFB® Standardized Fruit Blend from Ethical Naturals, Inc.

Ultimate Protector+ Includes Chokeberry

Ultimate Protector+ Includes Chokeberry

SFB® is a proprietary formula that combines extracts from Grape, Cranberry, Pomegranate, Blueberry, Apple, Mangosteen, Bilberry, Chokeberry, and Goji Berry. It is high in fruit polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanins, ellagic acid, xanthines, chlorogenic acid, pterostilbenes, resveratrol, phloridzin, quercetin, zeaxanthin, carotinoids, polysaccharides, quinic acid, and more. With its diverse blend, SFB® offers over 40-50% polyphenols as well as >9,000 ORAC units in a single gram.

Polyphenols, anthocyanins, and other plant elements are powerful ingredients associated with a variety of areas of human health, including healthy aging, healthy glucose metabolism, cardiovascular health, and inflammation management.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF CHOKEBERRY (ARONIA)

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. Total polyphenol content is 1752 mg per 100 g in fresh berries, anthocyanin content is 1480 mg per 100 g, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g. These values are among the highest measured in plants to date.

The plant produces these pigments mainly in the leaves and skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation and production of free radicals. By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, leaf and skin pigments filter intense sunlight, serve antioxidant functions and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species.

Analysis of polyphenols in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, quercetin-3-glycoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of phenolics.

In a standard measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates aronia to have one of the highest values yet recorded for a fruit — 16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g. The components contributing to this high measurement were both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, with the proanthocyanidin level “among the highest in foods,” which may explain their potent, astringent taste.

Below we provide information from several research articles that highlight some of the potential health effects of Aronia (Chokeberry)

CHOKEBERRY STUDIES

Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)
A Review on the Characteristic Components and Potential Health Effects

From: https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0028-1088306

Abstract

The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentials of the nutritional contribution of Aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa). The paper gives a short background to their botanical classification and cultivation practice, going in detail to describe the chemical composition of the berries. The emphasis is laid thereby upon the phenolic constituents. The paper finally gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential.

Antioxidant Effect

Aronia (Chokeberry)

Black Aronia (Chokeberry)

A few reports also describe an antioxidant effect in an animal model, where chokeberry anthocyanins decrease lipid peroxidation and enhance the activity of enzymes which are involved in the antioxidant defense system. One further study noted that the red pigment fraction of chokeberry fruits composed of cyanidin derivatives is a potent scavenger of DPPH radicals in both in vitro and in vivo systems and is able to prevent in a dose-dependent manner gastric mucosal damage that was induced by the subsequent application of ethanol. The authors suggested that one of the mechanisms by which the extract suppresses the development of the gastric mucosal damage is the scavenging of active oxygen by its cyanidin derivatives since the suppression of gastric acid secretion was not observed. An antioxidant effect was also found in humans, where a dietary supplementation with chokeberry juice limits the exercise-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells in rowers.

Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation

Many reports suggest anti-proliferative or protective effects of chokeberries and/or chokeberry extracts against colon cancer on the basis of in vitro studies and in one animal study. An anthocyanin-rich extract from Aronia melanocarpa was shown to inhibit the growth as well as to stimulate apoptosis of human HT-29 colon cancer cells but exerted only little effect on the growth of non-transformed NCM460 colonic cells. Interestingly, the chokeberry extract inhibited the growth to a greater extent than grape and bilberry anthocyanin-rich extracts when inhibition was compared at similar concentrations of monomeric anthocyanin. Another study demonstrated that the exposure to chokeberry juice inhibited Caco-2 cell proliferation by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Gene expression analysis revealed that the tumour suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), whose expression is known to be reduced in the majority of early adenomas and carcinomas, was up-regulated in the Caco-2 cells following repetitive exposure to dietary levels of chokeberry juice. The anticarcinogenic potential was further supported by data from an animal study using male rats treated with the colon carcinogen azoxymethane. An anthocyanin-rich extract from chokeberry inhibited the formation of the azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci, a tentative marker of dysplasia and malignant transformation, and decreased the colonic epithelial cell proliferation rate as well as the faecal bile acid concentration. The data go in line with recent studies reporting that isolated cyanidin 3-O-glucoside exhibits chemopreventive activities.

Antimutagenic effects

Phenolic compounds isolated from berries of Aronia melanocarpa also exert an antimutagenic activity. Anthocyanins isolated from aronia (chokeberry) markedly inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and 2-aminofluorene in the Ames test as well as in the sister chromatid exchange assay with cultured human lymphocytes. Furthermore, aronia juice intake was shown to inhibit the endogenous generation of N-nitrosamines in rats treated with aminopyrin plus sodium nitrite. In consequence, histopathological changes observed in livers of rats fed with nitrosamine precursors were prevented by co-treatment with aronia juice.

Hepatoprotective effects

In an animal study, anthocyanins from aronia (chokeberry) decreased the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium in the liver and kidney of rats receiving both these components in their diet. It may testify to the possibility of anthocyanins chelating metal ions which in consequence may decrease the damages caused by cadmium. Interestingly, a hepatoprotective effect of aronia juice was also observed in rats after acute exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The liver cytotoxicity from CCl4 is dependent upon its metabolism by cytochrome P450 to highly reactive trichloromethyl free radicals. The reaction of the CCl3 radical with oxygen initiates lipid peroxidation which results ultimately in the cell death. Aronia (chokeberry) juice prevented the CCl4-induced increase of lipid peroxidation as measured by the malonodialdehyde content in rat liver and plasma. One might conclude that the ability of anthocyanins and/or other phenolic constituents to scavenge free radicals is mainly responsible for the observed effect.

Cardioprotective effects

Aronia (chokeberry) can positively influence several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In vitroexperiments demonstrate that the phenolic constituents contribute to the protection and restoration of endothelial cells and consequently to their function. Furthermore anti-platelet effects, as well as vasoactive and vasoprotective properties in porcine coronary arteries were observed. In an experimental model of hyperlipidaemia in rats aronia fruit juice hindered the dietary-induced elevation of plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma lipids. In men with a mild hypercholesterolaemia regular aronia (chokeberry) juice drinking (250 mL per day) for six weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and trigylceride level whereas the HDL2 cholesterol level was increased. Furthermore a moderate but significant decrease in serum glucose, homocysteine and fibrinogen concentration was noted. The metabolic changes were associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by a mean of 13 and 7 mm Hg, respectively. A similar hypotensive effect of a flavonoid-rich extract from chokeberry fruits was lately observed in patients after myocardial infarction, treated simultaneously with statins and in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Other effects studied include enhanced reduction in cardiovascular risk markers in patients after myocardial infarction suggesting a possible clinical use for secondary prevention of isachaemic heart diesease.

Antidiabetes effects

Research of other authors has demonstrated that Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins might be useful in the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus type II and diabetes-associated complications. In an animal model the administration of aronia (chokeberry) fruit juice to diabetic rats appeared to attenuate hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. In a human intervention study the daily intake of 200 mL aronia (chokeberry) juice over a period of 3 months was effective in lowering fasting glucose levels in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Furthermore aronia (chokeberry) juice showed a beneficial effect on HbA1c-glycosylated haemoglobin, total cholesterol and lipid levels. These findings go in line with reports showing an effect of other procyanidin-rich foods on diabetes. Recent human studies also document that aronia (chokeberry) juice may be useful in in the treatment of obesity disorders.

Conclusions

In conclusion, aronia (chokeberry) (Aronia melanocarpa), a lesser known berry fruit, is one of the richest plant sources of highly interesting phenolic phytochemicals including procyanidins and anthocyanins. The high content as well as the pattern of the phenolic constituents seems to be responsible for the wide range of its potential medicinal and therapeutic effects. Further studies are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far also from the mechanistic point of view. However, it seems desirable that the spread and popularity of aronia (chokeberry) food products in the future will increase and expand consumers’ choice for healthy berry fruits.

Protective effect of chokeberry on chemical-induced oxidative stress in rat.

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20488852

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Mar;30(3):199-208. doi: 10.1177/0960327110371697. Epub 2010 May 20. Kujawska M1, Ignatowicz E, Ewertowska M, Oszmiański J, Jodynis-Liebert J.

Abstract

Male Wistar rats were treated with chokeberry juice per os, 10 mL/kg/day, for 28 days and a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 150 mg/kg, or carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), 2 ml/kg. The level of hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was increased in animals dosed with NDEA and CCl(4). Juice pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in TBARS by 53% and 92%, respectively. In rats administered juice alone, 50% decrease in TBARS was noted. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were decreased in the liver of rats administered either toxicant by 29%-52% as compared to controls. Juice pretreatment resulted in an increase in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase by 117%, 56% and 44%, respectively, only in rats challenged with NDEA. Although no response of plasma protein carbonyls to both toxicants was observed, the pretreatment with juice caused a 55% decrease of this parameter in CCl(4)-dosed rats. DNA damage in blood leukocytes induced by either toxicant was slightly reduced, by 24%, in the rats pretreated with juice and administered NDEA. The results of the study showed that pretreatment with chokeberry juice confers some protection against chemical-induced oxidative stress.

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 912769, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/912769

The Involvement of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Black Chokeberry in Oxidative Stress on Experimental Arterial Hypertension

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3600185/

Manuela Ciocoiu, Laurentiu Badescu, Anca Miron, and Magda Badescu

Abstract

The aim of this study is to characterize the content of Aronia melanocarpa Elliott (black chokeberry) extract and also to estimate the influence of polyphenolic compounds contained in chokeberries on oxidative stress, on an L-NAME-induced experimental model of arterial hypertension. The rat blood pressure values were recorded using a CODA Noninvasive Blood Pressure System. HPLC/DAD coupled with ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry allowed identification of five phenolic compounds in berries ethanolic extract as follows: chlorogenic acid, kuromanin, rutin, hyperoside, and quercetin. The serous activity of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) has significantly lower values in the hypertensive (AHT) group as compared to the group protected by polyphenols (AHT + P). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values are lower in the AHT group and they are significantly higher in the AHT + P group. All the measured blood pressure components revealed a biostatistically significant blood pressure drop between the AHT group and the AHT + P group. The results reveal the normalization of the reduced glutathion (GSH) concentration as well as a considerable reduction in the malondialdehyde (MDA) serum concentration in the AHT + P group. Ethanolic extract of black chokeberry fruits not only has a potential value as a prophylactic agent but also may function as a nutritional supplement in the management of arterial hypertension.

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 912769, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/912769

Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme inhibitors.

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459328

Bräunlich M1, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H.

Abstract

Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

Nutrients. 2013 Mar 4;5(3):663-78. doi: 10.3390/nu5030663.

Aronia (Chokeberry) Tea

Aronia (Chokeberry) makes a nice tea.

CHOKEBERRY SUMMARY

Chokeberry (Aronia) is an exciting fruit full of important polyphenols, antioxidants and Nrf2 activators that help to make Ultimate Protector+ such an outstanding nutritional supplement. This ingredient is becoming much more well known as research studies identify its many benefits. Recently, I was happy to find that the Knudsen “Just Fruit” brand has introduced “Just Aronia”. Try it!!!

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PRO-C AND ULTIMATE PROTECTOR – COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS

Dr. Hank Liers, PhD antioxidant formulasI have written extensively regarding the benefits HPDI’s PRO-C™ and Ultimate Protector™ antioxidant formulas. Based upon my experience with these formulas they are among the most effective antioxidant formulas available.

Both antioxidant formulas are included in HPDI’s system of foundational supplements and work most effectively when used with multivitamins, essential fats, and superfoods.

Yet, both formulas also are excellent standalone products that can rapidly provide the body with extremely high protection against free radicals.
Ultimate Protector antioxidant formulas

We are often asked “which of these two antioxidant formulas should I take?” My answer usually is to take both formulas. I personally take both of them on a daily basis.

Below I will briefly show the reason my answer is to take both formulas. I include information showing the relationship, in terms of ingredients of the two formulas (per serving of three (3) capsules daily of PRO-C and six (6) capsules daily of Ultimate Protector).

Ultimate Protector

INGREDIENTS OF ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS

PRO-C™ (per serving of three “00” veggie caps)

• Buffered non-GMO Vitamin C (1,500 mg)  buffered with Ca/Mg/Zn
• Grape Extract (seed, skin, and pulp) (90 mg)
• Green Tea Extract 95% polyphenols 40% min. EGCG (90 mg)
• Glutathione – reduced (60 mg)
• N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine (NAC) (45 mg)
• R-Lipoic Acid (15 mg)
• Coenzyme B2/R5P (3 mg)
• Coenzyme B6/P5P (3 mg)
• Selenium from l-selenomethionine (30 mcg)
• Calcium (70 mg)
• Magnesium (70 mg)
• Zinc (6 mg)

ULTIMATE PROTECTOR™ (per serving of six “0” veggie caps)

• Vitamin C as non-GMO Ascorbic acid (1500 mg)
• Anthocomplete™ (135 mg)  Wild Blueberry, Wild Bilberry, Acai, Black Currant Extract, Sweet Cherry, Raspberry, Elderberry, Blackberry, Aronia, Black Soybean Hull Extract, and Blue Corn
• CoffeeBerry®Forte (135 mg)
• Vitaberry® Plus (90 mg) freeze-dried Grape Seed, Wild Blueberry, Wild Bilberry, Cranberry, Tart Cherry, Prune, Raspberry Seed, Strawberry, Trans-Resveratrol, and Quercetin
• VitaVeggie® (90 mg)  Broccoli, Broccoli Sprouts, Tomato, Kale, Carrot, Brussels Sprouts, Onion, and Spinach
• Curcumin 95%  (90 mg)
• Trans-Resveratrol 98% (90 mg)
• Malic Acid (500 mg)
• Calcium (60 mg)
• Magnesium (60 mg)
• BioPerine® (7.5 mg)

The products together contain nine (9) unique PRO-C™ ingredients, eight (8) unique Ultimate Protector™ ingredients, and three (3) overlapping ingredients.

DISCUSSION OF ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS

PRO-C™

When PRO-C™ was first released in 1997 there were few publications available regarding Nrf2 ingredients and their benefits. The product design was based on the work of Dr. Lester Packer and his work done on the “Antioxidant Network” showing how nutrients such as Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Glutathione, and Lipoic acid work in a redox network to regenerate key nutrients in the body (see Figure 1. below)

doctor lester packer antioxidant formulas

                                                Figure 1. – Dr. Packer’s Antioxidant Network

At that time the powerful antioxidant formulas of Grape Seed Extract and Green Tea Extract were well known, but their powerful Nrf2 effects were not discovered until later. These ingredients are able to trap free radicals and conserve the body’s store of network antioxidants.

Also, the Nrf2 effects of NAC and Lipoic acid were not known at the time, but their powerful effects on the body were known to support the production of glutathione. Additionally, the super powerful glutathione (reduced) was included with supporting coenzymes B2 (from riboflavin 5′-phosphate) and B6 (from pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) that allow the enzymes glutathione reductase and transferase to function at a higher level.

ULTIMATE PROTECTOR™

From the beginning of the design process, Ultimate Protector™ (UP) was focused on creating a highly effective Nrf2 activator formula with outstanding antioxidant effects. Our understanding was that a very broad spectrum of plant polyphenols including flavonoids, anthocyandins, oligoproanthocyanidins (OPCs), etc. would deliver the best results.

We selected Futureceuticals Anthocomplete™, CoffeeBerry® Forte, Vitaberry® Plus, and VitaVeggie® in order to accomplish this and added Curcumin 95%, and Trans-Resveratrol 98% because of the powerful scientific findings regarding Nrf2 activation for these two ingredients. We found out later in testing that this combination of ingredients produces very high ORAC5.0 values (486,000 units/serving of six capsules) and works effectively against all of the primary types of free radicals in the body.

WHY TAKE BOTH PRO-C™ AND
ULTIMATE PROTECTOR™ ANTIOXIDANT FORMULAS?

Ultimate Protector versus PRO-C antioxidant formulas

Venn diagram showing unique and overlapping ingredients in PRO-C and Ultimate Protector.

There are 29 unique Nrf2 activator ingredients in Ultimate Protector (UP) and four (4) non-overlapping Nrf2 activator ingredients in PRO-C. Thus by taking both formulas you are able to receive 33 identifiable Nrf2 activator ingredients (870 mg). The amount of unique Nrf2 ingredients is probably significantly more than this because most of the identifiable ingredients contain a range of plant polyphenols.

Other unique ingredients of each formula include glutathione – reduced (60 mg), malic acid (500 mcg), zinc (6 mg), selenium (30 mcg), B2 (3 mg) and B6 (3 mg) from coenzyme forms, and Bioperine (7.5 mg) (for enhanced absorption of nutrients). These are important ingredients to have the formulas work more effectively together.

The overlapping ingredients in the formula include Vitamin C (3 gm – 1.5 gm from each formula), calcium (130 mg – 70 mg from PRO-C & 60 mg from UP), magnesium (130 mg – 70 mg from PRO-C & 60 mg from UP), and a little grape seed extract (~10 mg). We view this to be very positive especially because we believe that most people should take in at least 3 grams daily of Vitamin C. Equal amounts of calcium and magnesium balance each other in the body and have many important functions such as being part of critical enzymes.

SOURCES & RESOURCES

The Antioxidant Miracle. Lester Packer, PhD, and Carol Coleman. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999.

“Antioxidant Cocktail Update: Part 1: The Take Home Message is to Use Antioxidant Supplements”
(Interview of Dr. Lester Packer by Richard A. Passwater, PhD, Whole Foods Magazine, 1999)

HPDI BLOG ARTICLES

CONTACT US:

You can reach HPDI by calling 1-800-228-4265, email support(at)IntegratedHealth.com, or visit the retail website: IntegratedHealth.com

Health care professionals and resellers can apply for wholesale account, which includes access to the HPDI reseller website: HealthProductsDistributors.com. Email: Support(at)HealthProductsDistributors.com.

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ULTIMATE PROTECTOR INGREDIENTS – CRANBERRY

Hank Liers cranberries cranberry ultimate protector Nrf2Ultimate Protector™ contains freeze dried cranberry, as well as components from 29 different fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Each of these ingredients contain substances that may be considered to be polyphenols, antioxidants, and Nrf2 activators. In this article I explore the ingredient strawberries, which is a component of VitaBerry Plus® from Futureceuticals.

VITABERRY PLUS®

VitaBerry® (N1023) is the trade name for a line of high ORAC blends of fruit powders and fruit extracts, exclusively available through FutureCeuticals.

VitaBerry® is a proprietary formula that combines wild bilberry and wild blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, prune, cherry, and grape whole powders and extracts into lines of custom blends. High in fruit polyphenols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, ellagic acid, chlorogenic acid, resveratrol, and quinic acid, VitaBerry offers 6,000 ORAC units in a single gram.

VitaBerry® Plus (N81.3) combines the standard blend of VitaBerry® with resveratrol and quercetin to deliver a minimum of 12,000 ORAC units per gram.

Cranberry

Cranberries

HEALTH BENEFITS OF CRANBERRIES

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are native to the boggy regions of temperate and subalpine North America and Europe. Although Native Americans used them extensively, they were first cultivated in the U.S. in the early 19th century. Cranberries grow on viney plants belonging to the heath family Ericaceae that also includes blueberries, bilberries, huckleberries, and bearberries (Arctostaphylos uva ursi). Cranberries contain tannins, fiber, anthocyanins (and other flavonoids), and Vitamin C. Their tannins prevent bacteria from attaching to cells. Consequently, cranberries have been used against infections, including urinary tract infections. In addition, cranberries may be helpful in protecting against heart disease and stroke.

Cranberries are an especially good source of antioxidant polyphenols. In animal studies, the polyphenols in cranberries have been found to decrease levels of total cholesterol and so-called “bad” cholesterol. Cranberries may also inhibit the growth of tumors in human breast tissue and lower the risk of both stomach ulcers and gum disease. 

Here is a list of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients in found in cranberries.

Type of Phytonutrient             Specific Molecules
Phenolic Acids                             hydroxybenzoic acids including vanillic acids;
—Phenolic Acids (cont.)             hydroxycinnamic acids inculding caffeic,
—Phenolic Acids (cont.)             coumaric, cinnamic, and ferulic acid
Proanthocyanidins                     epicatechins
Anthocyanins                              cyanidins, malvidins, and peonidins
Flavonoids                                   quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol
Triterpenoids                              ursolic acid

Other Cranberry Information

  • Cranberries hold significantly high amounts of phenolic flavonoid phytochemicals called oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC’s). Scientific studies have shown that consumption of the berries have potential health benefits against cancer, aging and neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes, and bacterial infections.
  • Antioxidant compounds in cranberries including OPC’s, anthocyanidin flavonoids, cyanidin, peonidin and quercetin may prevent cardiovascular disease by counteracting against cholesterol plaque formation in the heart and blood vessels. Further, these compounds help the human body lower LDL cholesterol levels and increase HDL-good cholesterol levels in the blood.
  • Scientific studies show that cranberry juice consumption offers protection against gram-negative bacterial infections such as E.coli in the urinary system by inhibiting bacterial-attachment to the bladder and urethra.
  • In is known that cranberries turns urine acidic. This, together with the inhibition of bacterial adhesion helps prevent the formation of alkaline (calcium ammonium phosphate) stones in the urinary tract by working against proteus bacterial-infections.
  • In addition, the berries prevent plaque formation on the tooth enamel by interfering with the ability of the gram-negative bacterium, Streptococcus mutans, to stick to the surface. In this way cranberries helps prevent the development of cavities.
  • The berries are also good source of many vitamins like vitamin C, vitamin A, ß-carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin, and folate and minerals like potassium, and manganese.
  • Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) demonstrates cranberry at an ORAC score of 9584 µmol TE units per 100 g, one of the highest in the category of edible berries.

For more information on cranberries visit the sites given below:
https://www.healthambition.com/health-benefits-of-cranberry-juice/
or
http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=145

Scientific Studies on the Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry

Below, I provide relevant scientific studies on the antioxidant effects and potential health benefits of cranberries.

Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions.

Abstract

Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC®-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor κB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1-α, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction.

 Chemical characterization and chemo-protective activity of cranberry phenolic powders in a model cell culture. Response of the antioxidant defenses and regulation of signaling pathways

Abstract

Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage are implicated in various chronic pathologies. Emerging studies show that polyphenols may act by increasing endogenous antioxidant defense potential. Cranberry has one of the highest polyphenol content among commonly consumed fruits. In this study, the hepato-protective activity of a cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry extract (CE) powders against oxidative stress was screened using HepG2 cells, looking at ROS production, intracellular non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defenses by reduced glutathione concentration (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). Involvement of major protein kinase signaling pathways was also evaluated. Both powders in basal conditions did not affect cell viability but decreased ROS production and increased GPx activity, conditions that may place the cells in favorable conditions against oxidative stress. Powder pre-treatment of HepG2 cells for 20 h significantly reduced cell damage induced by 400 μM tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) for 2 h. Both powders (5–50 μg/ml) reduced t-BOOH-induced increase of MDA by 20% (CJ) and 25% (CE), and significantly reduced over-activated GPx and GR. CE, with a significantly higher amount of polyphenols than CJ, prevented a reduction in GSH and significantly reduced ROS production. CJ reversed the t-BOOH-induced increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. This study demonstrates that cranberry polyphenols may help protect liver cells against oxidative insult by modulating GSH concentration, ROS and MDA generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways.

Cranberry extract suppresses interleukin-8 secretion from stomach cells stimulated by Helicobacter pylori in every clinically separated strain but inhibits growth in part of the strains

From: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464613000364

Abstract

It is known that cranberry inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (HP). In human stomach, HP basically induces chronic inflammation by stimulating stomach cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-8 and other inflammatory cytokines, and causes stomach cancer, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibiting effects of cranberry on HP growth and IL-8 secretion from stomach cells induced by HP, using clinically separated HP strains. HP growth in liquid culture and on-plate culture was evaluated by titration after 2-day incubation and by agar dilution technique, respectively. For IL-8 experiments, MKN-45, a stomach cancer cell line, was incubated with HP for 24 h and IL-8 in the medium was assayed by ELISA. Cranberry suppressed growth of the bacteria only in six of the 27 strains. Meanwhile, it suppressed IL-8 secretion in all the strains. The results may suggest a possible role of cranberry in prevention of stomach cancer by reducing gastric inflammation.

Effects of cranberry powder on biomarkers of oxidative stress and glucose control in db/db mice

From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353827

Abstract

Increased oxidative stress in obese diabetes may have causal effects on diabetic complications, including dyslipidemia. Lipopolysccharides (LPS) along with an atherogenic diet have been found to increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Cranberry has been recognized as having beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidative stress. Therefore, we employed obese diabetic animals treated with an atherogenic diet and LPS, with the aim of examining the effects of cranberry powder (CP) on diabetic related metabolic conditions, including lipid profiles, serum insulin and glucose, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Forty C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were divided into the following five groups: normal diet + saline, atherogenic diet + saline, atherogenic diet + LPS, atherogenic diet + 5% CP + LPS, and atherogenic diet + 10% CP + LPS. Consumption of an atherogenic diet resulted in elevation of serum total cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) and reduction of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. However, with 10% CP, the increase in mean HDL-cholesterol level was close to that of the group with a normal diet, whereas AI was maintained at a higher level than that of the group with a normal diet. LPS induced elevated serum insulin level was lowered by greater than 60% with CP (P < 0.05), and mean serum glucose level was reduced by approximately 19% with 5% CP (P > 0.05). Mean activity of liver cytosolic glutathione peroxidase was significantly increased by LPS injection, however it was reduced back to the value without LPS when the diet was fortified with 10% CP (P < 0.05). In groups with CP, a reduction in mean levels of serum protein carbonyl tended to occur in a dose dependent manner. Particularly with 10% CP, a reduction of approximately 89% was observed (P > 0.05). Overall results suggest that fortification of the atherogenic diet with CP may have potential health benefits for obese diabetes with high oxidative stress, by modulation of physical conditions, including some biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Ultimate Protector cranberry cranberries

SUMMARY

Cranberries are an important fruit full of polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidants, and Nrf2 activators that help to make Ultimate Protector such an outstanding nutritional supplement.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

 

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