VITAMIN C: The Nutrient for Now!

Vitamin C: The Nutrient for Now!
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Dr. Hank Liers, PhD vitamin c antioxidantsFred Liers PhD vitamin c antioxidants

It is beneficial to periodically review accumulated scientific knowledge regarding key nutrients and remind readers of their importance. In this article, we will review some of the research and clinical findings on vitamin C that have been gathered over the past 70 years as well as more recent findings. As you will see, vitamin C is an amazing essential nutrient that has taken on extra importance right now!


Vitamin C typically is called l-ascorbic acid or ascorbate and is an essential nutrient for humans and other animal species. The term “vitamin C” refers to a number of vitamins that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts (e.g., magnesium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, sodium ascorbate, etc.), and some oxidized forms such as dehydroascorbic acid.

Vitamin C is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen syntheses reactions that when dysfunctional (usually because of lack of Vitamin C) cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy.  In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries.

Ascorbate acts as an electron donor and/or hydrogen donor, and this ability makes it a potent antioxidant. It rapidly reduces superoxide and nitroxide radicals and scavenges hydroxyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals. It also reacts with non-radical species such as singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid. It has been observed in in vitro experiments that Vitamin C acts as the first line of defense in the plasma.

                                            vitamin c fruits citrus

                                     Fruits high in vitamin C include citrus, strawberries, and kiwi

Vitamin C can “recycle” other antioxidants (i.e., due to its function as an electron donor) and thereby allow these antioxidants to quench more free radicals. Also, the one- and two- electron forms of vitamin C, semidehydroascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, respectively, can be reduced in the body by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms. The presence of glutathione in cells and extracellular fluids helps maintain ascorbate in a reduced state.

The vast majority of animals and plants are able to synthesize vitamin C, through a sequence of enzyme-driven steps. However, some animals, including guinea pigs and humans, lack the enzyme that is required in the last step of vitamin C synthesis. These species are able to survive with the lower levels available from their diets by recycling oxidized vitamin C. Animals that have the enzyme needed to synthesize of vitamin C do not have the ability to recycle oxidized vitamin C.

Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport—Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)—are the two transporters required for absorption. SVCT1 and SVCT2 import the reduced form of ascorbate across plasma membrane. GLUT1 and GLUT3 are the two glucose transporters, and transfer only the dehydroascorbic acid form of Vitamin C.

Although dehydroascorbic acid is absorbed at a higher rate than ascorbate, the amount of dehydroascorbic acid found in plasma and tissues under normal conditions is low, as cells rapidly reduce dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate.

Ascorbate concentrations in the blood above the kidney (renal) re-absorption threshold pass freely into the urine and are excreted. At high dietary doses, ascorbate is accumulated in the body until the plasma levels reach the renal resorption threshold, which is about 1.5 mg/dL in men and 1.3 mg/dL in women. Concentrations in the plasma larger than this value are excreted in the urine with a half-life of about two hours.

Although the body’s maximal stores of vitamin C are to some extent determined by the renal threshold for blood, there are many tissues that maintain vitamin C concentrations far higher than in blood. Biological tissues that accumulate over 100 times the level in blood plasma of vitamin C are the adrenal glands, pituitary, thymus, corpus leuteum, and retina. Tissues with 10–50 times the concentration present in blood plasma include the brain, spleen, lung, testicle, lymph nodes, liver, thyroid, small intestinal mucosa, leukocytes, pancreas, kidney, and salivary glands.

Historically, the discovery of vitamin C was related to the findings that a substance in citrus fruits (and other fresh foods) was able to prevent scurvy. In the early 1930s research teams in Hungary (led by Albert Szent-Georgi) and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA (led by Charles Glen King) first identified the anti-ascorbutic factor. Szent-Georgi initially called it l-hexuronic acid, but later proposed that the substance L-hexuronic acid be called “a-scorbic acid,” and chemically “L-ascorbic acid,” in honor of its activity against scurvy.

Shortly thereafter (around 1934), the Polish chemist Tadeus Reichstein succeeded in synthesizing the vitamin in bulk. The process made possible the cheap mass-production of vitamin C, which was quickly marketed by the Hoffman-La Roche company. Even today, all industrial methods for the production of ascorbic acid are based on the Reichstein process.

The Reichstein process involves using microbial fermentation of sugar derived mainly from corn, potatoes, or beets. When the final product is highly purified to over 99.9% purity in accordance with USP standards, none of the protein from the original source remains. The product is bio-identical to vitamin C found in plants and animals. This is an important fact in the current issues relating to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in corn, potatoes, and beets. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing is currently used to verify and certify that most of the vitamin C being produced is GMO free. To learn more about testing for GMOs, visit:

Over the years we have developed/marketed many very potent  Vitamin C products including PRO-C,  Ultimate Protector+, and Buffered C 1,000 Tabs. Both PRO-C and Ultimate Protector+ contain large amounts of vitamin C, antioxidants, and Nrf2 activators. Our customers (and we ourselves) get outstanding results when using these products.

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Bone and its connecting ligaments and tendons obtain strength from a long, chain-like protein molecule called collagen. Collagen is a structural protein that is the main component of connective tissue, and is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content.

Vitamin C is vital to the body’s production of collagen. Absence of vitamin C causes scurvy, leading to spongy gums, loosened teeth, bruising, and bleeding into the mucous membranes. Several of these symptoms are caused by loss of collagen and connective tissue from blood vessels, which then become fragile and unable to respond to blood pressure and other stresses.

Studies have shown that vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Supplementation of vitamin C has been found to improve components of the human immune system such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation, chemotaxis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity.

Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells, and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response. It is therefore clear that vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases.

Vitamin C plays a role in protecting the brain and nervous system from detrimental effects of stress. Synthesis and maintenance of the chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) depends on an adequate supply of vitamin C. These neurotransmitters are vital to brain functioning and affect people’s mood. They function as stress-signaling hormones and are produced in the adrenal glands, from which they derive their name. The adrenal glands and central nervous system maintain high levels of vitamin C by means of special cellular pumps, which absorb the vitamin when the body is deficient.

Vitamin C is also needed for synthesis of carnitine, a small molecule involved in transporting fat (lipids) to mitochondria, the “furnaces” of the body’s cells that burn nutrients to produce energy. The energy provided is used either to power the cells’ activities or to provide antioxidant electrons that prevent harmful oxidation.

Vitamin C is involved in breaking down cholesterol to form bile acids. This may have implications for people needing to lower their cholesterol levels. While the role of cholesterol in causing cardiovascular disease is generally overstated, the action of vitamin C on cholesterol levels suggests that higher levels may lower the risk of gallstones.

Vitamin C has been shown to lower lipoprotein a (LPa) levels in the body. High LPa levels correlate strongly with cardiovascular disease. Dr. Linus Pauling and others have suggested that the body uses plaques containing LPa to “patch” weak blood vessels that are caused by insufficient levels of vitamin C to build strong vessels with adequate collagen.

Vitamin C is widely known as an antioxidant, a substance that fights free radicals that can damage tissues and cause illness. As the principal water-soluble antioxidant in the diet, vitamin C is essential to health.

A shortage of vitamin C results in free radical damage to essential molecules in the body. The molecules affected include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), proteins, lipids (fats), and carbohydrates. Examples of sources of damaging free radicals and oxidation include mitochondrial by-products, chemical toxins from smoking, exposure to pesticides, as well as x-rays and other types of radiation.

The importance of vitamin C in preventing free radical damage, aging, and oxidation is frequently understated by those who are unaware of the volumes of research and clinical studies that have been conducted since the 1930s. An adequate supply of vitamin C enables the regeneration of vitamin E and other antioxidants in the body. The main water-soluble antioxidant generated within our cells is called glutathione, a small protein molecule (tripeptide of the amino acids glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine) that plays a central role in protecting our cells from oxidation damage.

Because glutathione is typically present in ten times the concentration of vitamin C, it has often been considered to play a more important role. However, the functions of vitamin C and glutathione are linked with vitamin C being required for the antioxidant functioning of glutathione, even when glutathione is present in a significantly greater concentrations.

In nature vitamin C is often found in combination with plant substances called polyphenols and bioflavonoids. These plant substances are often powerful antioxidants and Nrf2 activators that stimulate the body’s endogenous production of protective enzymes. In fact, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) from grape seeds and pine bark have been shown to cross link and strengthen collagen that requires vitamin C for synthesis. For these reasons, it makes sense to combine vitamin C with these plant substances.


Senescence, or biological aging, causes gradual deterioration of functional characteristics. “Senescence” can refer to cellular senescence or senescence of the entire body. New research shows vitamin C alleviates the senescence roadblock to cellular reprogramming. In addition, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation is improved by vitamin C.

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair system for the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem cells are different from other cells in the body in three ways: 1) They can divide and renew themselves over a long period of time, 2) They are unspecialized, so they cannot do specific functions in the body, 3) They have the potential to become specialized cells, such as muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells.

Adult stem cells are more specialized than embryonic stem cells. Typically, adult stem cells can generate different cell types for the specific tissue or organ in which they live.

For example, blood-forming (or hematopoietic) stem cells in the bone marrow can give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. However, blood-forming stem cells do not generate liver cells, lung cells, or brain cells.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are cells produced by converting tissue-specific cells, such as skin cells, into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells. iPSC cells share many of the same characteristics of embryonic stem cells, including the ability to give rise to all the cell types in the body.

Much of the research on iPSC is being done in the lab. If a method of converting adult stem cells to iPSC could be found by working with the body through nutrition, then many of the negative effects of stem cells produced outside of the body could be avoided.

Stem Cells and Vitamin C

Recently, I was pleasantly surprised to find a research paper titled “Vitamin C Enhances the Generation of Mouse and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.” (;

Here are the summary and highlights of the paper:

Summary: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors. However, the low efficiency and slow kinetics of the reprogramming process have hampered progress with this technology. Here we report that a natural compound, vitamin C (Vc), enhances iPSC generation from both mouse and human somatic cells. Vc acts at least in part by alleviating cell senescence, a recently identified roadblock for reprogramming. In addition, Vc accelerates gene expression changes and promotes the transition of pre-iPSC colonies to a fully reprogrammed state. Our results therefore highlight a straightforward method for improving the speed and efficiency of iPSC generation and provide additional insights into the mechanistic basis of the reprogramming process.


► Vitamin C improves the speed and efficiency of mouse iPSC generation
► Adding vitamin C converts pre-iPSCs to iPSCs
► Vitamin C alleviates the senescence roadblock to reprogramming
► Human iPSC generation is also improved by vitamin C

Below is an abstract regarding vitamin C, stem cells, and genetics:

Reprogramming the Epigenome With Vitamin C
PMID: 31380368 PMCID: PMC6646595 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00128

Abstract: The erasure of epigenetic modifications across the genome of somatic cells is an essential requirement during their reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Vitamin C plays a pivotal role in remodeling the epigenome by enhancing the activity of Jumonji-C domain-containing histone demethylases (JHDMs) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins. By maintaining differentiation plasticity in culture, vitamin C also improves the quality of tissue specific stem cells derived from iPSCs that are highly sought after for use in regenerative medicine. The ability of vitamin C to potentiate the activity of histone and DNA demethylating enzymes also has clinical application in the treatment of tumors. Vitamin C deficiency has been widely reported in patients and has recently been shown to accelerate progression in disease models. Therapies involving high-dose vitamin C administration are currently gaining traction in the treatment of epigenetic dysregulation, by targeting aberrant histone and DNA methylation patterns associated with cancer progression.


Intravenous Vitamin C Protects Against Metabolic Syndrome and Activates Nrf2

Nrf2 regulates antioxidants

Our laboratory analyzed the expression after IVC treatment of one of the factors responsible for the enzymes and proteins involved in the stress response.[1]

This was nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of several enzymes that synthesize antioxidants and detoxifying molecules.[1,3] In addition, Nrf2 enhances the expression of genes involved in cell energy production and maintenance, which are essential for health and longevity.[4] Nrf2 signaling is essential for detoxification of reactive metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This factor also helps cells to get rid of toxins. The products of Nrf2 signaling enhance protection against molecular damage. Our study showed that after IVC treatment, genes coding for Nrf2 and several other important signaling molecules were up-regulated.[1] This activation of Nrf2, by IVC treatment can protect against age-related degenerative diseases and cancer,

Aging causes a decline in levels of Nrf2 that promotes oxidative damage. This mechanism is involved in many aged-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases, and animal models of atherosclerosis.[5-9]

In many disease states, oxidative and/or inflammatory stress has a crucial role. Degenerative and immunological disorders, including atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV/AIDS, neurological disorders, sepsis, and many others, affect more than 45 million people worldwide. Though these diseases appear to be very different, the Nrf2 pathway plays an important role in many of them.

Nrf2 is able to prevent disease by suppressing oxidative stress, so interventions that activate Nrf2 would promote longevity, healthy aging and lower cancer incidence. Recent medical research has shown that Nrf2-activating strategies – which can include drugs, foods, dietary supplements, and exercise – can prevent a wide variety of diseases.[10]

Activation of Nrf2 can protect against acute insults to the lung, kidney, brain, liver, eye and heart that are caused by diverse factors including chemical toxins. Nrf2 activation can help to prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, and several neurodegenerative diseases. Nrf2 activity improves atherosclerosis, liver inflammation, and fibrosis associated with obesity in a mouse model. It also is known to be important in rheumatoid arthritis. Oxidative stress is significantly involved in cartilage degradation in arthritis; and the presence of a functional Nrf2 gene is essential for maintaining and rebuilding new cartilage.

In summary, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway has been widely accepted as a promising anti-inflammatory treatment for many health issues including tumors.

Our study demonstrated that high dose vitamin C can protect against inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 by IVC treatment can induce protection against age-related degenerative diseases and cancer.

Note: We believe that taking oral vitamin C to bowel tolerance will have similar effects as IVC regarding Nrf2 activity.


Single-digit, gram-level doses of vitamin C may prevent many diseases, but much higher doses are required for treatment of illness. The massive doses needed for therapy are often in the range of 50–100 grams (50,000–100,000 mg) of vitamin C per day. Most clinical studies have considered doses of a single gram. A dose 100 times larger has very different properties.

An optimal intake of vitamin C is the amount that prevents or cures disease while minimizing the potential risk. It is a ridiculous assumption to think that intakes sufficient to prevent acute scurvy are adequate to prevent or treat other diseases. Furthermore, there is plenty of evidence that the intake of vitamin C needed to prevent chronic illness is much greater than the RDA.

A person starting to take vitamin C supplements is starting from a level of relative deficiency. By taking repeated doses, the levels in the tissues and blood plasma increase and more can be tolerated. Human requirements for vitamin C appear to be more variable than previously realized.

The key point is that people need more vitamin C — and in many cases far more — than previously assumed. Using the criteria used to set the RDA, and removing the errors, leads to a suggestion that the intake for a healthy adult should be in the range of about 500 mg to 20 grams (20,000 mg), or even more. Some individuals would require low doses and would not tolerate higher intakes. Other individuals need higher levels, above 10 grams.

A person who wishes to estimate his or her own requirement needs to determine their bowel tolerance level. To do this, start with a low dose and repeat it each hour until bowel effects (gas, distension, and loose stools) are observed. This level of intake is your bowel tolerance level and the optimal intake is 50% to 90% of this maximum.

Keep in mind that a high carbohydrate intake can interfere with the bowel tolerance test and falsely indicate a lower limit. In addition, during times of illness your bowel tolerance level can be many times higher than when you are in a state of good health. Furthermore, the level that a person can tolerate increases with time, as dynamic flow is maintained.

People vary in their requirements and it is not possible to provide a definitive statement about intakes that applies to all. Furthermore, a person’s requirement will vary, increasing with even a slight illness. The minimum intake required to raise a typical adult’s blood plasma levels consistently is two to three grams (2,000–3,000 mg) per day, in divided doses of about 500–1,000 mg. For some, this will be too high and they may need to lower the dose slightly. For many, this intake will be far too low to provide resistance to infections and chronic disease.

Vitamin C is remarkably safe, which is not surprising considering it is essential to human life and is actively retained in the body. Vitamin C is a simple molecule, used by both animals and plants, often at high concentrations. Organisms have had hundreds of millions of years to evolve mechanisms for prevention of damage by vitamin C. But even allowing for such tolerance, the safety of vitamin C is outstanding. It is unusual in that it can be taken in massive doses, for long periods, without apparent harm.

Therapeutic levels of vitamin C required for dealing with serious illnesses are much higher than the levels described above. Under these conditions, Dr. William Klenner, one of the pioneers of vitamin C usage, recommended the amount of 350 mg per kilogram of body weight per day.

In most cases, Dr. Klenner recommended that the doses be divided into amounts taken hourly during waking hours. For example, a 50 kg (110 lb) person should take a total of 18,000 mg daily in hourly 1,000 mg doses for 18 hours. A 100 kg (220 lb) person should take 36,000 mg daily in hourly 2,000 mg doses for 18 hours. When dealing with conditions of illness these (and even higher) doses do not usually cause diarrhea. However, you can adjust these starting doses up or down according to your bowel tolerance level.

Vitamin C Prevents Side Effects of Vaccinations

In June 2020 we received an Orthomolecular Medicine News Service release on the use of Vitamin C to prevent side effects from vaccinations and to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations.

It is especially important every parent be aware of the facts presented in this article in order to avoid the many toxic side effects observed when children receive vaccinations. Therefore, I am posting the release below:

Vitamin C Prevents Vaccination Side Effects; Increases Effectiveness

by Thomas E Levy, MD, JD

(OMNS, Feb 14, 2012) The routine administration of vaccinations continues to be a subject of controversy in the United States, as well as throughout the world. Parents who want the best for their babies and children continue to be faced with decisions that they fear could harm their children if made incorrectly. The controversy over the potential harm of vaccinating, or of not vaccinating, will not be resolved to the satisfaction of all parties anytime soon, if ever. This brief report aims to offer some practical information to pediatricians and parents alike who want the best long-term health for their patients and children, regardless of their sentiments on the topic of vaccination in general.

While there seems to be a great deal of controversy over how frequently a vaccination might result in a negative outcome, there is little controversy that at least some of the time vaccines do cause damage. The question that then emerges is whether something can be done to minimize, if not eliminate, the infliction of such damage, however infrequently it may occur.

Causes of Vaccination Side Effects

When vaccines do have side effects and adverse reactions, these outcomes are often categorized as resulting from allergic reactions or the result of a negative interaction with compromised immune systems. While either of these types of reactions can be avoided subsequently when there is a history of a bad reaction having occurred at least once in the past as a result of a vaccination, it is vital to try to avoid encountering a negative outcome from occurring the first time vaccines are administered.

Due to the fact that all toxins, toxic effects, substantial allergic reactions, and induced immune compromise have the final common denominator of causing and/or resulting in the oxidation of vital biomolecules, the antioxidant vitamin C has proven to be the ultimate nonspecific antidote to whatever toxin or excess oxidative stress might be present. While there is also a great deal of dispute over the inherent toxicity of the antigens that many vaccines present to the immune systems of those vaccinated, there is no question, for example, that thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is highly toxic when present in significant amounts. This then begs the question: Rather than argue whether there is an infinitesimal, minimal, moderate, or significant amount of toxicity associated with the amounts of thimerosal or other potentially toxic components presently being used in vaccines, why not just neutralize whatever toxicity is present as completely and definitively as possible?

Vitamin C is a Potent Antitoxin

In addition to its general antitoxin properties (Levy, 2002), vitamin C has been demonstrated to be highly effective in neutralizing the toxic nature of mercury in all of its chemical forms. In animal studies, vitamin C can prevent the death of animals given otherwise fatal doses of mercury chloride (Mokranjac and Petrovic, 1964). Having vitamin C on board prior to mercury exposure was able to prevent the kidney damage the mercury otherwise typically caused (Carroll et al., 1965). Vitamin C also blocked the fatal effect of mercury cyanide (Vauthey, 1951). Even the very highly toxic organic forms of mercury have been shown to be effectively detoxified by vitamin C (Gage, 1975).

Vitamin C Improves Vaccine Effectiveness

By potential toxicity considerations alone, then, there would seem to be no good reason not to pre- and post-medicate an infant or child with some amount of vitamin C to minimize or block the toxicity that might significantly affect a few. However, there is another compelling reason to make vitamin C an integral part of any vaccination protocol: Vitamin C has been documented to augment the antibody response of the immune system (Prinz et al., 1977; Vallance, 1977; Prinz et al., 1980; Feigen et al., 1982; Li and Lovell, 1985; Amakye-Anim et al., 2000; Wu et al., 2000; Lauridsen and Jensen, 2005; Azad et al., 2007). As the goal of any vaccination is to stimulate a maximal antibody response to the antigens of the vaccine while causing minimal to no toxic damage to the most sensitive of vaccine recipients, there would appear to be no medically sound reason not to make vitamin C a part of all vaccination protocols. Except in individuals with established, significant renal insufficiency, vitamin C is arguably the safest of all nutrients that can be given, especially in the amounts discussed below. Unlike virtually all prescription drugs and some supplements, vitamin C has never been found to have any dosage level above which it can be expected to demonstrate any toxicity.

Vitamin C Reduces Mortality in Vaccinated Infants and Children

Kalokerinos (1974) demonstrated repeatedly and quite conclusively that Aboriginal infants and children, a group with an unusually high death rate after vaccinations, were almost completely protected from this outcome by dosing them with vitamin C before and after vaccinations. The reason articulated for the high death rate was the exceptionally poor and near-scurvy-inducing (vitamin C-depleted) diet that was common in the Aboriginal culture. This also demonstrates that with the better nutrition in the United States and elsewhere in the world, the suggested doses of vitamin C should give an absolute protection against death (essentially a toxin-induced acute scurvy) and almost absolute protection against lesser toxic outcomes from any vaccinations administered. Certainly, there appears to be no logical reason not to give a nontoxic substance known to neutralize toxicity and stimulate antibody production, which is the whole point of vaccine administration.

Dosage Information for Pediatricians and Parents

Practically speaking, then, how should the pediatrician or parent proceed? For optimal antibody stimulation and toxin protection, it would be best to dose for three to five days before the shot(s) and to continue for at least two to three days following the shot. When dealing with infants and very young children, administering a 1,000 mg dose of liposome-encapsulated vitamin C would be both easiest and best, as the gel-like nature of this form of vitamin C allows a ready mixture into yogurt or any other palatable food, and the complete proximal absorption of the liposomes would avoid any possible loose stools or other possible undesirable bowel effects.

Vitamin C as sodium ascorbate powder will also work well. Infants under 10 pounds can take 500 mg daily in some fruit juice, while babies between 10 and 20 pounds could take anywhere from 500 mg to 1,000 mg total per day, in divided doses. Older children can take 1,000 mg daily per year of life (5,000 mg for a 5 year-old child, for example, in divided doses). If sodium must be avoided, calcium ascorbate is well-tolerated and, like sodium ascorbate, is non-acidic. Some but not all children’s chewable vitamins are made with calcium ascorbate. Be sure to read the label. Giving vitamin C in divided doses, all through the day, improves absorption and improves tolerance. As children get older, they can more easily handle the ascorbic acid form of vitamin C, especially if given with meals. For any child showing significant bowel sensitivity, either use liposome-encapsulated vitamin C, or the amount of regular vitamin C can just be appropriately decreased to an easily tolerated amount.

Very similar considerations exist for older individuals receiving any of a number of vaccinations for preventing infection, such as the yearly flu shots. When there is really no urgency, and there rarely is, such individuals should supplement with vitamin C for several weeks before and several weeks after, if at all possible.

Even taking a one-time dose of vitamin C in the dosage range suggested above directly before the injections can still have a significant toxin-neutralizing and antibody-stimulating effect. It’s just that an even better likelihood of having a positive outcome results from extending the pre- and post-dosing periods of time.

Click here to visit, our main product website. We offer a full range of vitamin C products, including the world-renowned PRO-C and Ultimate Protector+ antioxidant and vitamin C formulas.

Links to





  1. The Vitamin C Cure for Heart Disease. Hilary Roberts and Steve Hickey, 2011.
  2. Vitamin C: The Real Story. Steve Hickey and Andrew Saul, 2009.
  3. Curing the Uncurable: Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins, 3rd Ed. Thomas E. Levy, 2009.
  4. Cancer and Vitamin C: A Discussion of the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment of Cancer With Special Reference to the Value of Vitamin C. Ewan Cameron and Linus Pauling, 1993.
  5. How to Live Longer and Feel Better.  Linus Pauling, 1986.
  6. Vitamin C, the Common Cold and the Flu. Linus Pauling, 1977.
  7. The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease.  Irwin Stone, 1972.
  8. Bowel tolerance as an indicator of vitamin C saturation is discussed by Dr. RF Cathcart at and
  9. For more about Dr. Klenner’s life and work:
  10. The complete text of Irwin Stone’s book The Healing Factor is posted for free reading at
  11. The full text of Dr. Frederick R. Klenner’s Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C is posted for free reading at:

PRO-C Vitamin C Abstracts

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Dr. Hank Liers is the CEO and chief product formulator for Health Products Distributors, Inc. He has been studying and using natural means of achieving health since 1984. Dr. Liers received his PhD in physics in 1969 from the University of Minnesota and has applied his analytical abilities to learning and applying a scientific approach to nutrition.


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